Physics in Higher Education
V. 18, N 4, 2012
The contents
3 Heartily Congratulations to Our Jubiljar (N.S. Purysheva)
4 Outcomes of XIIth of International Conference «Modern Physics Practis», Moscow, 2012 September, 25-27
9 Project-Oriented Technology of Learning Physics Students at the University on the Basis of the Global Initiative CDIO
G.P. Stefanova
19 Nonmaterial Matter Waves of de Broglie
A.F. Smyk
30 The Two-Capacitors Paradox: Energy Dissipation Manners
V.V. Blagodarny
39 A General Approach to Calculation of Thermal Conductivity for Solids of Different Geometric Shapes
A.A. Vikhrov
43 Optimization of Courses in Practical Physics in High Schools in Natural Sciences
N.V. Kalachev
51 On the Role of Graphs in General Physics Laboratory Work
V.I. Nikolaev, T.A. Bushina
59 Specialized Laboratory Workshop on Physics (SRWS) – 20 years
N.A. Zadorozhny, N.V. Kalachev, A.N. Morozov, S.L. Timchenko
68 Methods of Magnetic Field Determination in Physics Workshop Laboratories of National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI)
E.N. Aksenova, N.N. Vzorov, A.N. Dolgov, E.E. Zemskov, V.N. Ignatov, N.P. Kalashnicov, K.A. Lipatov, Yu.D. Lysak, A.Yu. Matronchik, B.N. Mesherin, S.S. Muraviev_Smirnov, S.V. Oblizina, M.V. Pentegova, V.D. Popov, E.P. Potanin, V.I. Rostokin, V.V. Samedov, T.A. Semenova, V.B. Sokolov, V.F. Fedorov, A.V. Shutov
80 Utilization of Computer-based Testing for Current Knowledge Control during the Laboratory Works on Discipline Physics in Military Institute
Zh.V. Medvedeva
90 Virtual Projects and the Problem-Active Approach to Teaching Physics at the Technical University
A.V. Baranov
97 Experience of Working with Gifted Learners at the Military Institute of Higher Education
M.S. Martynov, Y.G. Dolotin
103 Determination of the Speed of Sound by the Phase Difference Method in a Laboratory Practicum
A.V. Makienko, B.G. Chernyavski
107 The Photonic Crystal Lattice-parameter Determination Through its Optical Laue Diffraction Pattern
E.K. Naimi, S.I. Valyansy
119 Electrostatic Pendulums: Experiment and Theory
V.A. Saranin
133 Computer Simulations in the Course «Physics of Condensed State» (Section Physical Crystallography and X-Ray Analysis)
A.G. Khundjua, E.A. Brovkina, M.M. Mel’nikov
140 Formation of Students’ Readiness for Implementation of Physical Experiments in Modern School
E.V. Donskova, T.V. Klevetova, V.V. Rebro
150 Theoretical Basis of the Implementation of the Pass-through Design of Facilities for Professional Work Training to the Physicist Engineer
O.V. Mirzabekova, V.V. Soboleva
156 Structure of a Complexity Index of Test Problem in Rasch Model
A.A. Gilev
162 Abstracts
168 Information

Abstracts

Project-Oriented Technology of Learning Physics Students at the University on the Basis of the Global Initiative CDIO
G.P. Stefanova
Astrakhan State University; e-mail: firstpro@aspu.ru

It is shown as to apply Worldwide CDIO Initiative Standards for the organization of innovative
educational framework at university; developed a «mechanism» to identify typical professional tasks of professional and generalize methods to solve them, described the task of designing and building of technical objects.
Keywords: the innovative educational framework, CDIO Initiative Standards, education of students of conceiving, designing, implementing and operating technical objects.

Nonmaterial Matter Waves of de Broglie
A.F. Smyk
Moscow Automobile and Road State Technical University (MADI); e-mail: afsmyk@mail.ru

In all the well-known texts on quantum mechanics de Broglie waves are introduced only as a stepping stone on the way to the introduction of the Schrodinger equation. The concept of de Broglie waves is considered in this article. De Broglie waves are characterized by frequency, velocity of propagation and wavelength. These waves as originally introduced by de Broglie were a relativistic phenomenon. The nature of this waves have remained obscure.
Keywords: Louis de Broglie, wave mechanics, phase waves, relativistic concept, de Broglie waves, phase and group velocity, Bohr’s quantization condition, electron diffraction, quantum statistic.

The Two-Capacitors Paradox: Energy Dissipation Manners
V.V. Blagodarny
Borisoglebsk State Pedagogical Institute; e-mail: bvv_2004@land.ru

The well known two-capacitors paradox under various parameters of the connection circuit is analyzed. On the quasi-permanent current condition electromagnetic radiation is not revealed. Field-energy consideration as a tool for balance energy calculation is discussed. The overview of energy loss problems is outlined.
Keywords: two-capacitors paradox, energy, quasi-permanent current condition, field-energy consideration, electric circuits parameters.

A General Approach to Calculation of Thermal Conductivity for Solids of Different Geometric Shapes
A.A. Vikhrov
Sankt-Petersburg State University; e-mail: 6778844@sipnet.ru

A new method of calculation thermal conductivity for solids is considering in this article. It distinguish consist in division the volume of solid in finite quantity of elements. This admission allows an important simplification of the solution. Namely, the formula of thermal conductivity is putting down in computer, without solving it as equation. For the time dt in an element of volume dV enters a quantity of heat dQin and comes out from it a quantity of heat dQex . At that a temperature of the element of volume is changes on du . As a matter of this dates it composes a differential equations.
Keywords: calculation, thermal conductivity, geometrical form of solid, element of volume, law of Fourier, plate, entering and coming out streams of heat, system of linear differential equations, massive, equation of thermal conductivity.

Optimization of Courses in Practical Physics in High Schools in Natural Sciences
N.V. Kalachev
Moscow State Technical University named by N.E. Baumann, Financial University under
the Government of RF, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences
119991 Moscow, Leninskiy pr. 53; e-mail: kalachev@sci.lebedev.ru
Provides experience in improving physical workshops in natural sciences at the physics department of N.E. Baumann Moscow State Technical University, in Moscow State University of Communication Means (MIIT), Moscow Pedagogical State University and other universities in the open education condition. Discusses model, concept and methodology for optimization of physical workshops. Describes a number of Labs (including remote laboratory works), the information system of admission to Labs and complex sensors for compact workshops.
Keywords: Compact physical workshops, optimized workshops, admittance system, remote labs.

On the Role of Graphs in General Physics Laboratory Work
V.I. Nikolaev, T.A. Bushina
M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Department; e-mail: bushina@rambler.ru

The problem on the ways how to enhance the cognitive recourses of general physics laboratory tasks by using graphs as teaching tool is discussed. The main aspects of the problem are discussed on the concrete examples of increased difficulty tasks from various parts of general physics course. The topic being discussed: “Falling of the small ball on the ground”, “Symmetrical gyroscope”, “Magnetic phase transitions in a ferromagnet”, “Chain of the direct current”, “Electromagnetic induction”. It is marked that series of graphs drawn by a tutor for laboratory tasks may be used as a suitable bank of tasks which expand the cognitive possibilities of students during practical work on the general physics course.
Keywords: general physics course, general physics laboratory work, didactics, difficult graphs.

Specialized Laboratory Workshop on Physics (SRWS) – 20 years
N.A. Zadorozhny, N.V. Kalachev, A.N. Morozov, S.L. Timchenko
N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University

This article gives an overview of the history of creation and development of lab research student (SRWS), the basic directions of research work of the Physics Department of N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University. Volume and diversity of subjects of laboratory works correspond to different areas of modern physics and its applications, allowing students to actively participate in the educational activities of the University. When moving from a traditional laboratory workshop, workshop with elements of scientific and technical research ensures qualitatively higher level training of future specialists.
Keywords: laboratory workshop on physics, students’ research work, remote access, work with applicants.

Methods of Magnetic Field Determination in Physics Workshop Laboratories of National Reseach Nuclear University (MEPhI)
E.N. Aksenova, N.N. Vzorov, A.N. Dolgov, E.E. Zemskov, V.N. Ignatov, N.P. Kalashnicov, K.A. Lipatov, Yu.D. Lysak, A.Yu. Matronchik, B.N. Mesherin, S.S. Muraviev_Smirnov, S.V. Oblizina, M.V. Pentegova,
V.D. Popov, E.P. Potanin, V.I. Rostokin, V.V. Samedov, T.A. Semenova, V.B. Sokolov, V.F. Fedorov, A.V. Shutov
National Researh Nuclear University « MEPHI», 115409 Moscow Kashirskoye road 31;
e-mail: elen_aksenova@yandex.ru ; n.vzorov@mail.ru ; gunarovna@mail.ru; suffice@rambler.ru ; vignatv@rambler.ru ; kalash@mephi.ru ; lipatov.k@mail.ru ; LYBO_LYSA@yandex.ru ; matronchik2004@mail.ru ; meshcherin@gmail.ru; smuraviev@list.ru ; Oblizina@mail.ru ; penteg@yandex.ru ; Vdpopov@mephi.ru; potanin@imp.kiae.ru ; vrostokin@stream.ru ; v_samedov@yandex.ru; kotsem@voxnet.ru ; VBSokolov@MEPHI.RU ; fvf48@yandex.ru ; avt614729@mail.ru

The short description of new physics workshop laboratories “ELECTRICITY” based on educational facilities of firms “PHYWE” and “VLADIS” is given. Methods of magnetic fields producing, and magnetic flux density and magnetic field intensity measuring, which are used in 16 new practical works, are described. An emphasis is paid to investigation of geomagnetic field, solenoid coil magnetic field, Helmholtz coils magnetic field, and magnetic field of various configurations of direct current conductors. For magnetic field measuring in new practical works, Hall and induction sensors are used.
Keywords: instructional laboratory, practical work, magnetism, educational facilities, magnetic flux density, geomagnetic field, solenoid coil, Helmholtz coils, Hall sensor, induction sensor.

Utilization of Computer-based Testing for Current Knowledge Control during the Laboratory Works on Discipline Physics in Military Institute
Zh.V. Medvedeva
Military Academy of Strategic Rocket Forces (Serpukhov Branch), 142202,
Serpukhov, Moscow region. 17 Brigade; e-mail: mzhv13@mail.ru

This article provides a method of use, organization and content of computer testing for current knowledge control during physical laboratory works execution in military institute. Some of the resume and analysis of results for pedagogical experiment to implement the technique, conducted at the Department of Physics of MA SRF, are also given.
Keywords: method; computer testing; control; physical laboratory works.

Virtual Projects and the Problem-Active Approach to Teaching Physics at the Technical University
A.V. Baranov
Novosibirsk State Technical University,
Russia, 630092 Novosibirsk, K. Marx Prospekt 20, NSTU; e-mail: baranovav@ngs.ru

The virtual projects method is used for the problem-active approach in teaching physics at the Technical University. Virtual simulation of the laboratory work «Measuring of the bullet speed by means of the ballistic pendulum» as an example of implementation by the second-year students is presented.
Keywords: problem-active approach, virtual project, teaching physics.

Experience of Working with Gifted Learners at the Military Institute of Higher Education
M.S. Martynov, Y.G. Dolotin
Academy of the Federal Guard Service of the Russian Federation, Orel; e-mail: aprilnost@rambler.ru

The article describes the physics department experience of working with gifted cadets in the sphere of their scientific activity and participation in competitions of different levels.
Keywords: gifted cadets, research activity, physics competitions.

Determination of the Speed of Sound by the Phase Difference Method in a Laboratory Practicum
A.V. Makienko, B.G. Chernyavski
Tomsk Polytechnik University 634055, Tomsk, Lenin Str. 30; e-mail: ant.mak@tpu.ru

A method is proposed for determining the speed of sound in air, based on measurements of phase differences between vibrations of a sound signals in a traveling sound wave. An electronic phase meter is used for measurements of phase difference of a sound wave between the source and receiver situated on some distance from each other.
Keywords: speed of sound, method of phase differels, laboratory practical, phase difference.

The Photonic Crystal Lattice-parameter Determination Through its Optical Laue Diffraction Pattern
E.K. Naimi1, S.I. Valyansy2
1Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys; 119049, Moscow, Leninskiy Prospekt, 4; e-mail: e.naimi@mail.ru
2The Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of General Physics named by A.M. Prokhorov; 119991, Moscow, UL. Vavilov, 38; e-mail: sergv3@yandex.ru

The description of experimental facility designed to obtain Bragg light diffraction for 2Dphotonic structure (two-dimensional photonic crystal) is given. The Laue optical diffraction pattern conditions are regarded for light reflection at the photonic crystal surface. The method is described for photonic crystal lattice-parameter determination through its optical Laue diffraction pattern and the photonic crystal lattice parameter is obtained for the hexagonal close packed crystal structure.
Keywords: photonic crystal, light diffraction, optical Laue pattern.

Electrostatic Pendulums: Experiment and Theory
V.A. Saranin
Glazov State Pedagogical Institute; e-mail: val_sar@yandex.ru

It is carried out research of physical and mathematical pendulums, as cargoes at which the charged ball cooperating with an opposite charge-image in conducting and dielectric plates is used. It is shown, that such systems can have one or two stable and one unstable positions of equilibrium, and possess bifurcation properties.
Keywords: an electrostatic pendulum, electric images, energy and force of electrostatic
interaction.

Computer Simulation in the Course «Physics of Condensed State» (Section Physical Crystallography and X-Ray Analysis)
A.G. Khundjuaa, E.A. Brovkinab, M.M. Mel’nikovc
Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State
University, Moscow 119991, Russia; e-mail: akhundjua@mail.ru , bel_brov@rambler.ru, cxenomorpha@list.ru

The computer practicum on X-ray analysis, which includes some laboratory works of the diffraction on a mono- and polycrystalline, is presented. Various options of the developed programs for the use in general and special physical practicum are discussed.
Keywords: computer simulation, physical experiment, laboratory works on physics, condensed matter physics, X-ray structural analysis.

Formation of Students’ Readiness for Implementation of Physical Experiments in Modern School
E.V. Donskova, T.V. Klevetova, V.V. Rebro
Volgograd State Social_Pedagogical University
Department of theory and methods of teaching physics and computer science
400005, Lenin Avenue, 27, Volgograd; e-mail: donskova@vspu.ru , ktv@vspu.ru, rebro@vspu.ru

The competence aspect of physics teacher’s to-be readiness for the profession is presented in the article. The theoretical principles of activity-based technologies of teaching students to design the subject-oriented educational environment on the basis of physical experiment are considered.
Keywords: professional competences; physical experiment; pedagogical design and technology.

Theoretical Basis of the Implementation of the Pass-through Design of Facilities for Professional Work Training to the Physicist Engineer
O.V. Mirzabekova, V.V. Soboleva
The Astrakhan State Technical University, 414025, Astrakhan, Tatischeva st. 16,
Astrakhan Construction Engineering Institute, 414056, Astrakhan, Tatischeva st.18; e-mail: omirzabekova@yandex.ru,

Project activity is the main kind of professional activity of civil engineers. It is offered to a kind of activity to use for training a method of through design when training to physics. The technique of training consisting of three stages, and special didactic means is for this purpose developed.
Keywords: physics teaching future engineers - construction workers, the pass-through design for teaching physics.

Structure of a Complexity Index of Test Problem in Rasch Model
A.A. Gilev
Samara State University of Architecture and Civil-engineering; e-mail: algil@mail.ru

The structure of complexity index of test problem has been considered. The index is the test model’s objective characteristic in the framework of a Rasch model. Based on a statistical analysis of results of solving specially designed test problems, it has been concluded that there is linear dependence of a complexity index on key elements of the solution.
Keywords: Rasch model, complexity index of a problem, cognitive operations.