Physics in Higher Education
V. 22, N 2, 2016
The contents
5 Implementation and Structure Peculiarities of Physics Master Programs in Physics in Herzen University
G.A. Bordovsky, N.I. Anisimova, Yu.A. Gorohovatsky, V.M. Grabov, A.A. Zaitsev, R.V. Parfen’ev, E.Yu. Semenova
16 Becoming of the Practical Methods of Teaching Physics in Russia
M.A. Brazhnikov, N.S. Purysheva
39 The History of the Experimental Method and Material-Technical Base of Teaching Physics in Russia
N.V. Kalachev, A.V. Smirnov, S.A. Smirnov
56 Applying of Distance Learning System for Carrying Out Undergraduates Physics Exams
N.P. Kalashnikov, S.S. Muravyev-Smirnov, D.A. Samarchenko, A.N. Tyulyusov
70 To the History of the General Physical Practicum. The Atomic and Nuclear Physics
V.I. ╩ozlov
77 Structuring of Educational Material in Physics at the Technical University
A.V. Tyutyaev
85 The Hydraulic Model of the Cylindrical Implosion
S.V. Bondarenko, A.B. Georgievskaya, D.N. Zamyslov, I. S. Kalinin, V.A. Klevcov, G.B. Krasovskii, E.E. Meshkov, I.A. Novikova, L.L. Ogorodnikov, V.V. Rudenko
95 Modern X-ray Sources. II. Synchrotron Radiation
E.V. Smirnov, M.E. Smirnova
109 The Organization of Stern–Gerlach Laboratory Work on the Base of Innovative Educational Technology
N.D. Strekal
118 Thermodynamics in the Course of Military High School Physics
A.E. Aizentson
127 The Physical Model for Active Phase of Human Labor
Yu.B. Kotov, T.A. Semenova
138 On the Issue of Studying Electron-Atom Interactions at the Chair of Optics of Physics Faculty of SPSU
A.A. Mityureva
147 The Momenta in the Reflection and Refraction of Waves
V.I. Tsoy

 

PHYSICS IN HIGHER EDUCATION
Founders of the Journal:
Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation Moscow Physical Society
International Association of Developers and Manufactures of Educational Technology
The four-monthly journal
ISSN 1609-3143

The journal is registered at the State Committee of the Russian Federation on the Press. Certificate of registration of the mass media no. 019360 dated November 2, 1999.

Journal Council
Oleg N. Krokhin – Prof., Dr. Sci., Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), (Editor-in-Chief)
Anatoliy D. Gladun — Prof., Dr. Sci., Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), (Deputy Editor-in-Chief)
Nikolay P. Kalashnikov – Prof., Dr. Sci., National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), (Deputy Editor-in-Chief)
Yuriy G. Rudoy — Prof., Dr. Sci., Russian People’s Friendship University
Mikhail B. Shapochkin – Prof., Dr. Sci., Chairman of the Board of Moscow Physical Society, (Deputy Editor-in-Chief)
Yuriy L. Kolesnikov — Prof., Dr. Sci., St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics - Optics
Nikolay N. Kudryavtsev — Prof., Dr. Sci., Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences
Mikhail N. Strikhanov — Prof., Dr. Sci., National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute)
Nikolay N. Sysoev— Prof., Dr. Sci., Lomonosov Moscow State University
Dmitry R. Khokhlov — Prof., Dr. Sci., Lomonosov Moscow State University, Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences


Editorial Board

Olga N. Golubeva — Prof., Dr. Sci., Russian People’s Friendship University
Yuriy A. Gorohovatskiy — Prof., Dr. Sci., Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St. Petersburg
Irina N. Zavestovskaya — Prof., Dr. Sci., P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute)
Vladimir S. Lebedev— Prof., Dr.  Sci., P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University)
Andrey N. Morozov — Prof., Dr. Sci., National Research Bauman Technical University
Yuriy S. Pesotskiy — Prof., Dr. Sci., Association «MARPUT»
Natalia S. Purysheva – Prof., Dr. Sci., Moscow Pedagogical State University
Alexander M. Saleckiy – Prof., Dr. Sci., Lomonosov Moscow State University
Gennadiy G. Spirin — Prof., Dr. Sci., Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University)
Galina P. Stefanova —Prof., Dr. Sci., Astrakhan State University

Executive Secretary
Nikolay V. Kalachev — Prof., Dr. Sci., Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute)

Technical Edition
Pavel D. Berezin — technical editing, Publishing Service P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS
Tatyana Val. Alekseeva— engineer Publishing Service P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS
Tatyana Vik. Alekseeva — editor Publishing  Service P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS

Phone: +7 (499) 132-66-51
E-mail: kalachev@sci.lebedev.ru
Internet: pinhe.lebedev.ru


 

Implementation and Structure Peculiarities of Physics Master Programs in Physics in Herzen University
G.A. Bordovsky1, N.I. Anisimova1, Yu.A. Gorohovatsky1, V.M. Grabov1,
A.A. Zaitsev2, R.V. Parfen’ev3, E.Yu. Semenova1
1Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia,
Moika river Emb. 48, St. Petersburg, Russia, 191186; e-mail: phys@herzen.spb.ru
2Yelets State University named after Ivan Bunin, Kommunarov str. 28, Yelets, Lipetsk region, 399770; e-mail: API@ELSU.RU
3Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, Russia, 194021; e-mail:  R.Parfeniev@mail.ioffe.ru
Received April 7, 2016                                                                          PACS 01.40.-d, 01.40.gb
The structure of physics-researchers training system implemented in Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia is under discussion. It embraces subsystem of fundamental scientific and profound professional training, broad natural science education and provide research internships in leading research institutions of Russian Academy of Sciences. The advantages are achieved by special training courses selection which ensure these subsystems linkages and multiplicative principle implementation and thus enhance physics-researchers training extent.
Keywords: science education, fundamental training in physics, professional training, research practice.

References [in Russian]

  1. Bordovsky G.A. Looking for models for the training of PhD level specialists in the European educational space // UNIVERSUM: Bulletin of Herzen University. 2014. ╣ 2. P. 3-7.
  2. Anisimova N.I., Gorohovatsky Yu.A., Grabov B.M. Professional Training System in Terms of Masters’ Program “Physics of Condensed Matter” in Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia // Physics in Higher Education. 2007. Vol. 13. ╣ 4. P. 9-15.
  3. Anisimova N.I., Bordovsky G.A., Bordovsky V.A., Seldyaev V.I., Semenova E.U. Net-Interaction Experience in Herzen University // Physics in Higher Education. 2013. Vol. 19. ╣ 3. P. 19-26.
  4. Anisimova N.I., Grabov B.M., Zaitsev .., Lyaptsev A.V., Khanin S.D., Semenova E.Yu. Educational+ methodical complex of network educational program «Physics of nanostructures and nanoelectronics» / N.I. Anisimova [and other]. – SPb.: Publish. of Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, 2013. – 155 p.
  5. Anisimova N.I., Grabov B.M., Zaitsev .., Semenova E.Yu. Features of construction of network curriculum of the master program «Physics of nanostructures and nanoelectronics» // Proceedings of XII International Scientific Conference «Physics in System of Modern Education (PSME-2013)», Petrozavodsk, 3-7 June 2013. Vol. 1. P. 275-277.
  6. Semenova E.Yu. The System of Professional Training Physicists+Researchers in Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia // Izvestia: Herzen University Journal of Humanities and Sciences. 2013. ╣ 157. P. 131-135.
  7. Grabov B.M., Pronin V.P., Semenova E.Yu. Course «Principles of Contemporary Natural science» for University Students of Physics+Related Majors // Physics in Higher Education. 2013. Vol. 19. ╣ 1. P. 25 – 30.
  8. Anisimova N.I., Gorohovatsky Yu.A., Grabov B.M. Training system undergraduates in condensed matter physics in the field of physical experiment // Proceedings IX International Educationa-methodical Conference «Modern physics workshop», Volgograd, 19-21 September 2006. P. 29.
  9. Bordovsky G.A., Anisimova N.I., Gorohovatsky Yu.A., Grabov V.M., Zaitsev A.A., Parfen’ev R.V., Semenova E.Yu. Features of the implementation of the master programs in Physics at Herzen University // Proceedings of XIII International Conference «Physics in System of Modern Education (PSME-15)», Saint-Petersburg, 1-4 June 2015. Vol. 2. P. 361-364.
  10. Bochegov V.I., Komarov V.., Kuznetsov D.V., Pronin V.P., Uryupin .N., Khinich I.I. The organization and content of special courses and research practice of master’s degree programs in physics of nanostructures and nanoelectronics and condensed matter physics in Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia // Proceedings of XIII International Conference «Physics in System of Modern Education (PSME-15)», Saint-Petersburg, 1-4 June 2015. Vol. 2. P. 364-366.

 

Becoming of the Practical Methods of Teaching Physics in Russia
Mikhail A. Brazhnikov1, Natalia S. Purysheva2
1N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, RAS
4 Kosygin str., Moscow, 11999, Russian Federation; e-mail: birze@inbox.ru
2Moscow State Pedagogical University
1/1 M. Pirogovskaya str., Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation; e-mail: npurysheva42@rambler.ru

Received April 17, 2016                               PACS 01.40.ek; 01.40.Fk; 01.40.gb; 01.40.Ha

In the article, practical methods of teaching physics in Russia in the late XIX – early XX centuries are considered. A special atmosphere both in the society and in the science of that time played an important role in their formation. A sequence of teaching methods in the historical development:demonstrationexperiment;pupil’sassistingtotheteacherinpreparingandconducting experiments; laboratory work in small groups; class laboratory works (front and “scattered”) and laboratory teaching method were revealed. It is shown that, in parallel with the development of teaching methods arises their problems, the questions to which the methodology of physics returns at each new circle of its development. In this sense, the problems which are discussed in the article are relevant at this stage of modernization of the Russian education.
Keywords: methodology of physics; practical teaching methods; demonstration experiment; laboratory work; problems of teaching methods.

References
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– S.-Petersburg: Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1785. VIII + 196 pp., 7 dr. [In Russian].

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The History of the Experimental Method and Material-Technical Base of Teaching Physics in Russia
Nikolay V. Kalachev, Aleksandr V. Smirnov1, Sergei A. Smirnov2
Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation NIU MEPHI, LPI, MPGU1, MPSU2
125993, Moscow, GSP-3, Leningradskiy Prospekt, 49; e-mail: NKalachev@fa.ru
1 119991, Russia, Moscow, UL. Malaya Pirogovskaya, 1/1; e-mail: smirnovav@rambler.ru
2 119991, Russia, Moscow, UL. Malaya Pirogovskaya, 1/1; e-mail:    sa.smirnov@mpgu.edu

Received March 20, 2016                                                                                  PACS 01.50.Pa

Authors consider the history of the experimental method and material-technical base of teaching physics in Russia over the past 300 years from Peter 1 till our days.
Keywords: teaching physics, material-technical base, the history of physics teaching methodology.

Referents [in Russian]

  1. Venslavskij V.B., Kalachev N.V., Ponomaryov, A.V. Smirnov A.V., Smirnov S.A. New tools for the preparation of future teachers of physics and technology to learning electronics to specialized level // Physics in Higher Education. Volume 19, number 4, 2013 – Pp. 101-106.
  2. Voskanyan A.G., Pushkareva Yu.A., Smirnov A.V., Smirnov S.A. Educational Assessment Wednesday of the Cabinet Physics // Physics in School. No. 3. 2013. – Pp. 63-70.
  3. Galanin D.D. From the history of physics teaching in Russia // Physics, 1914, no. 4.
  4. Glinka I.V. Experience on methods of physics. — Spb.: education, 1911.
  5. Drenteln N.S. In the physical Cabinet Alexander’s Cadet Corps. Physical education, 1902, no. 6.
  6. Cabinet of physics high school ed. A.A. Pokrovsky. Publ. Prosvetshenie, 1982.
  7. Kalachev N.V. Task-oriented physical and public education workshops in the cycle of natural sciences. Practical aspects: Monograph. – Moscow: Izdatelstvo «Publishing House MFO», 2011. – 228 p.
  8. Kalachev N.V. Methodology for designing problem-oriented physical technical universities workshops // Vestnik of Moscow State Technical University. After N.E. Bauman. Series: Natural Science – No. 1, 2012. – Pp. 119-125.
  9. Kalachev N.V. Methodical system of experimental training for physics students in cycle science: thesis. the doctor of pedagogical sciences, Moscow – 2013, MPGU – 355 p.
    10. Kalachev N.V., Mirzabekova O.M., Smirnov A.V. «Problem-oriented laboratory workshop with elements of the activity approach as a means of consolidating knowledge on methods of mathematical physics» // Physics in Higher Education. – 2009. – Vol. 15, no. 1. – Pp. 14-18.
  10. Kalachev N.V., Smirnov A.V. Forms of problem-oriented workshops in physical system design methodology of distance learning/training activities on physics. Educational institutions, universities. Reports of the international scientifically-practical Conference. – ╠.: publishing MGOU, 2009. – Pp. 10-12.
  11. Kalachev N.V., Smirnov A.V., Smirnov S.A. Information-measuring system for problem-oriented workshops with remote access // Physics in Higher Education. Volume 18, number 1, 2012. – Pp. 140-148.
  12. Kalachev N.V., Smirnov A.V., Smirnov S.A. Formation of professional competences creative nature in a methodical system of experimental training for physics teachers’ students / Physics in Higher Education. Volume 19, number 1, 2013. – Pp. 31-36.
  13. Kalachev N.V., Smirnov A.V., Smirnov S.A. Information and communication technologies in the physical education in the system of preparation of Bachelors in Pedagogical Universities // Physics in Higher Education. Vol. 20, no. 3, 2014. Pp. 20-27.
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    // Education industry: a collection of articles. Issue 3. – M.: Moscow State Industrial University, 2002. Pp. 333-341.
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Applying of Distance Learning System for Carrying Out Undergraduates Physics Exams
N.P. Kalashnikov, S.S. Muravyev-Smirnov, D.A. Samarchenko, A.N. Tyulyusov
NationalResearchNuclearUniversityMEPhI,Kashirskoeshosse31,115409, Moscow,Russia;
e-mail:kalash@mephi.ru;SSMuravyevsmirnov@mephi.ru;DASamarchenko@mephi.ru;  ANTyulyusov@mephi.ru
Received April, 18, 2016                                                                          PACS 01.55.+01.40.gb

The remote training technique in general physics with foreign students is discussed. The examination for the student certification was chosen in the quiz form for all parts of the general physics course. This article describes the basic principles of the creation and placement of the structured question bank for the distance learning system. The possibility of creating an adaptive tests system is described, on the basis of the minimal state education standards requirements. The examination results are analyzed and the tests validity is carried out based on a comparison of the exam results with a student certification during the semester.
Keywords:distance learning, testing, physics, education, magistracy, selected chapters of general physics.

References [in Russian]

  1. Grigorieva M.S.,Zavestovskaya I.N.,Krokhin O.N.,Strikhanov M.N.,Fronya A.A. Experience of the Magistracy Institute of National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” in the Network Learning Implementation // “Physics in Higher Education”. 2015, Vol. 21, ╣ 3, p. 24-34.
  2. Zavestovskaya I.N.,Kalashnikov N.P.,Krokhin O.N.,Muravyev-Smirnov S.S. Methodology and Distance Strategies of General Physics Course in National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” // “Physics in Higher Education”. 2015, Vol. 21, ╣ 3, p. 35-45.
  3. Kalashnikov N.P.,Kozhevnikov N.M. Internet testing of basic knowledge. Physics. – SPb.: “Lan”, 2009. – 160 p.
  4. Guseva A.I. Techniques of knowledge adaptive control // Informatics and education. – 2003. ╣ 7, p. 56-62.
  5. Moodledocs. http://docs.moodle. org/
  6. Chelyshkova M.B. Theory and pedagogical tests designing practice. – Moscow: “Logos”, 2002. – 431 p.
  7. Kalashnikov N.P.,Rubin S.G.,Samarchenko D.A. Test technologies in educational process of National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” // Mechanical engineering and engineering education. 2010, ╣ 2, p. 61-68.

 

To the History of the General Physical Practicum.
The Atomic and Nuclear Physics
V.I. ╩ozlov
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119991, Moscow, Lenin Hills, 1; e-mail: Kozlov1937.@mail.ru
Received October 29, 2015                                                                 PACS 01.50. Pa

In 2009 year is passed hundred years after issue of the first manual to execution of laboratory works by physics of professor Moscow University A.P. Sokolov [1]. After this time in Moscow University and in other higher educational institutions and abroad are created a great number of laboratories works, devoted to the study of various physical phenomena and physical laws by means of most various methods. At the Physical Department of MSU is created the books [2-5] according to materials of educational textbooks of different colleges, devoted to the physical practicum, devoted to laboratories works in mechanics, molecular physics, electricity and magnetism and optics according to materials of articles in different journals, including the referative journal of physics. In this books is collected the information about laboratories works, published for the last hundred years. In this article is present the book [6], in which are described laboratories works by the atomic and nuclear physics, are published in these years.
Keywords: general physical practicum, laboratories work, physical phenomenon, neutrons, protons, radioactivity.
References [in Russian]

  1. Sokolov A.P. The Physical Practicum. The Direction to Exercises for Beginners in the Physical Laboratory, Consists by the Physical Institute of Moscow University. M. – 1909. – pp. 254.
  2. Kozlov V.I. Antology of the General Physical Practicum. Mechanics. – 2010. – pp. 247.
  3. Kozlov V.I. Antology of the General Physical Practicum. Molecular Physics. – 2010. – pp. 171.
  4. Kozlov V.I. Antology of the General Physical Practicum. Electricity and Magnetism. – 2012. – pp. 251.
  5. Kozlov V.I. Antology of the General Physical Practicum. Optics. – 2013. – pp. 179.
  6. Kozlov V.I. Antology of the General Physical Practicum. Atomic and Nuclear Physics. – 2014. pp. 172.

Structuring of Educational Material in Physics at the Technical University
A.V. Tyutyaev

Samara state technical university 443100 Samara, street Molodogvardejsky, 244;
e-mail: tyutyaev@mail.ru
Received June 06, 2015                                                                         PACS 00.01.40.gb

One way to improve the efficiency of learning is the use of a deep logical structuring of educational information. In this paper, we propose a new method of structuring the teaching material in physics, while maintaining the traditional sequence of thematic modules: mechanical; thermodynamics and molecular physics (including elements of statistical physics); electricity and magnetism; waves, optics; quantum physics (including physics of the atom and elements of solid state physics); nuclear physics; physical picture of the world. As the most important concepts in physics arisen experiment are phenomenological and then physical knowledge can be represented on the one side, the experimental phenomenological laws describing various phenomena, on the other side, the pattern of these phenomena. The basis of the method of structuring the course of physics is to allocate the experimental laws and phenomenological models of varying complexity and generality, by which explained the mechanism of the phenomenon and process. In this case, models and hypotheses (classic- entry level, relativistic, quantum-higher level), by which explained the mechanisms of the phenomena that are of particular importance.
Keywords: education, university, physics, structuring, phenomenology.

References [in Russian]

  1. Rodioshkina Yu.G., Maslennikova L.V. Podgotovka po fizike studentov tekhnicheskikh vuzov v ramkakh variativnogo komponenta uchebnogo plana. Innovatsii v obrazovanii. Vestnik Nizhegorodskogo universiteta im. N.I. Lobachevskogo, 2012, ╣ 1 (1), p. 18–24.
  2. Chukambaeva A.T. Organizatsiya samostoyatel’noy raboty studentov po resheniyu zadach v tekhnicheskom vuze dlya preodoleniya formalizma znaniy / Chukambaeva A.T., Ushakova D.S., Rakhmankulova G.A., Mustafina D.A., Korotkova N.N. // Uspekhi sovremennogo estestvoznaniya. – 2013. – ╣ 10. – p. 149-150.
  3. Rakhmankulova G.A. Diagnostika urovney formalizma znaniy po fizike u studentov tekhnicheskogo vuza // Sovremennye nauchnye issledovaniya i innovatsii. 2013. ╣ 10 [Elektronnyy resurs]. URL: http://web.snauka.ru/issues/2013/10/28215.
  4. Mamaeva I.A. Metodologicheski orientirovannaya sistema obucheniya fizike v tekhnicheskom vuze: Avtoreferat dis. doktora ped. nauk: 13.00.02 Moskva, 2006 524 p. RGB OD, 71:06-13/153.
  5. Shishelova T.I., Konovalov N.P., Pavlova T.O. Prikladnye issledovaniya v oblasti fiziki. Rol’ fiziki v inzhenernom obrazovanii. – Fundamental’nye issledovaniya. – 2015. – ╣ 2. – p. 3850-3854.
  6. Ermakov A.V. Metod mnogomernogo strukturirovaniya uchebnogo materiala pri obuchenii fizike v vuze: dissertatsiya kandidata pedagogicheskikh nauk: 13.00.02 / Ermakov A.V.; [Mesto zashchity: Nizhegor. gos. un-t im. N.I. Lobachevskogo]. – Nizhniy Novgorod, 2008. – 173 p.: il. RGB OD, 61 09-13/371.
  7. Vaganova T.G. Modul’no-kompetentnostnoe obuchenie fizike studentov mladshikh kursov tekhnicheskikh universitetov: Avtoreferat dis. kand. ped. nauk: Vaganova T.G. – 13.00.02 – Moscow, 2008.
  8. Proekt programmy po fizike dlya studentov tekhnicheskikh vuzov (k standartam 3-ego pokoleniya). http://www.physicsnet.ru.
  9. Sb. dokl. Kh-y Mezhdunar. konf. «Fizika v sisteme sovremennogo obrazovaniya» (FSSO-09), Sankt- Petersburg, 31 maya – 4 iyunya 2009. 353 p.
  10. Sb. «Aktual’nye problemy prepodavaniya fiziki v VUZakh Rossii». Materialy soveshchaniya zaveduyushchikh kafedrami fiziki VUZov Rossii, Moscow, 29 iyunya – 1 iyulya 2009. 364 p.

 

The Hydraulic Model of the Cylindrical Implosion
S.V. Bondarenko1, A.B. Georgievskaya1, D.N. Zamyslov1, I.S. Kalinin1,
V.A. Klevcov2, G.B. Krasovskii, E.E. Meshkov2,
I.A. Novikova2, L.L. Ogorodnikov3, V.V. Rudenko1
1VNIIEF, 607188, Russian Federation, Sarov, st. Mira, 37
2SarFTI NRNU MEPhI, 607186, Russian Federation,
Sarov, st. Duhova, 6 3 Lycee ╣15, 607186, Russian Federation,
Sarov, st. Kuibysheva, 25 E3mail: meshkov@sarfti.ru, eemeshkov@gmail.com

Received April 8, 2016                                         PACS 01.50 Pa, 01.50 Qb, 01.50 My

As part of the laboratory practical works on gas dynamics, created in SarFTI NRNU MEPhI, hydraulic model of cylindrical implosion and accompanying cumulation is designed. Due to the security of model the work with it does not require special admissions.
Keywords: workshop on gas dynamics, implosion, cumulation, experiment, numerical calculation.
References

  1. Meshkov E.E., Rudenko V.V. Laboratory works complex on gas dynamics. // Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop “Models and Methods of Aerodynamics”, Russia, Yevpatoria, 4/13 June 2013, pp.146/147.
  2. Meshkov E.E., Krasovsky G.B. The method of laboratory modeling of gas dynamics problems and device for its implementation (variants). // RF Patent #2393546 on 27/06/2010.
  3. Scherbak Yu.P., Alekseev V.V., Logvinov A.I., Meshkov E.E., Rudenko V.V., Sirotkina A.G., Tachaev G.V. Development and implementation of experimental and numerical simulation complex for the study of problems of non/stationary gas dynamics in SarFTI // Abstracts of the conference “Scientific session of the MEPhI 2009”, Moscow, Vol. 1, 2009, p. 155.
  4. Baryshev A.S., Zamyslov D.N., Meshkov E.E., Novikova I.A., Pichugov V.V., Rudenko V.V., Yanbaev G.M. Thermonuclear target dynamics model // Physics in Higher Education, Vol. 20, ╣ 1, 2014, pp. 54/62.
  5. Suntsov N.N. Analogies methods in aerohydrodynamics. // M., Fizmatgiz, 1958.
  6. Georgievskaya A.B., Meshkov E.E., Ogorodnikov L.L., Shamshin A.D., Yurina I.A. Laboratory model for hydrodynamic instability investigation. // Proc. Abstracts of 3 Int. Conf. “Turbulent Mixingand Beyond”. Trieste, Italy, 21/28 August 2011, p. 139.
  7. Georgievskaya A.B., Krasovsky G.B., Meshkov E.E., Ogorodnikov L.L., Tochilina A.A. Hydrodynamic Models of Plane and Converging Cylindrical Shock Waves. // Book of Abstracts, IUTAM symposium 12/3 “Waves in Fluids: Effects of Non/Linearity, Rotation, Stratification and Dissipation”. Moscow, June 18/22, 2012, p. 81.
  8. E.E. Meshkov. Rayleigh, Guderley and Leon Ogorodnikov // Atom, ╣ 65, 2015, pp. 41/46.
  9. Rudenko V.V., Shaburov M.V. Teaching&Research Complex MASTER Professional Ver. 10. // Certificate of registration industry development. ╣ 11845, 2008.
  10. Basko M.M., Sharkov B.Yu., Zabrodin A.V., Guskov S.Yu., Didenko A.N., Imshennik V.S., Koshkarev D.G., Maslennikov M.V., Medin S.A., Nedoseev S.L., Smirnov V.P., Subbotin V.I., Feoktistov L.P., Haritonov V.V., Churazov M.D. Inertial confinement fusion: the current state of and prospects for the energy sector. // FIZMATLIT 2005, p. 255.
  11. Rayleigh // Phil. Mag. 34, 94 (1917).
  12. Guderley G. // Luftfahrforschung, 19, 302 (1942).
  13. Stanyukovich K.P. Unsteady motion of a continuous medium – M.: Gostekhizdat, 1955.
  14. Zababakhin E.I. Cumulation and instability. Collection of scientific articles. Publisher RFNC – VNIITF. Snezhinsk, 1998, P. 110.
  15. Zababakhin E.I. Some problems of explosion gas dynamics. Snezhinsk, 1997, p. 200.

 

Modern X-ray Sources. II. Synchrotron Radiation
E.V. Smirnov, M.E. Smirnova
Bauman Moscow State Thechnical University
105005, Moscow, 2th Baumanskaya, 5; eKmail: seva09@rambler.ru
Received February 5, 2016                                                                         PACS 41.60.Ap

The article discusses the X-ray sources based on synchrotron radiation (SR). It outlines the physical principles of operation of the SR sources of the first two generations – of synchrotrons and storage rings. SR properties marked to ensure its active use of modern scientific research and applications – high brightness beam, a wide range of radiation, and its polarization characteristics. It is necessary to include this material in courses on optics of X- rays that are taught in technical universities of Russia.
Keywords: synchrotron radiation, storage ring, bending magnet.
References
1. Kharaja F. General course of rentgenotechnika, 3nd ed. M.-L., 1966. – 568 p. [In Russian].
2. Blokhin M.A. Physics of X-rays, 2ed. M., 1957. – 518 p. [In Russian].

  1. Rentgenotechnika. Handbook ed. by V.V. Klyuev, books 1-2, M., 1980. B. 1 – 479 p., b.2 – 363p. [In Russian].
  2. Smirnov E.V. Modern X-ray Sources. I. X-ray Tubes. // Physics in Higher Education, vol. 21, n. 4, 2015, p. 68-82 [In Russian].
  3. Kulipanov G.N., Skrinskii A.N. Using Synchrotron Radiation: Status and Prospects. // Physics- Uspekhi, v. 122, n. 3, 1977, p. 369-418. [In Russian].
  4. Zubavichus Ya.V., Slovokhotov J.L. X-ray Synchrotron Radiation in Physicochemical Studies. //Russian Chemical, v. 70 (5), 2001, p. 429-463. [In Russian].
  5. Ivanenko D.D., Pomeranchuk I.Ya. On the maximum energy attainable in the betatron. // Reports of the USSR Academy of Sciences, vol. 44, 1944, p. 343-344. [In Russian].
  6. Elder F.R., Gurewitsch A.M., Langmuir R.V., Pollock H.C. Radiation from electrons in a synchrotron // Phys. Rev., v. 71, 1947, p. 829-830.
  7. Martinson L.K., Morozov A.N., Smirnov E.V. Electromagnetic field. – Moscow: Publishing House of Moscow State Technical University, 2013. – 424 p. [In Russian].
  8. Rowe E., Weaver J. The use of synchrotron radiation. // Physics – Uspekhi, vol. 126, no. 2, 1978, p. 269-286. [In Russian].
  9. Ternov I.M. Synchrotron radiation. // Physics – Uspekhi, vol. 165, no. 4, 1995, p. 429-456. [In Russian].
  10. Mikhaylin V.V. Synchrotron radiations study the properties of matter. // Soros Educational Journal, 1996, n. 9, p. 100-106. [In Russian].
  11. Shiryaev A.A., Zubavichus Ya.V. The use of synchrotron radiation for solving mineralogical and geochemical problems. [In Russian]. http://www.ises.su/2011/pdf_lectures/shiryaev.pdf
  12. Yakimenko M.N. Powerful sources of ultraviolet and x-ray radiation. // Physics – Uspekhi, vol. 114, no. 1, 1974, p. 55-66. [In Russian].
  13. Ternov I.M., Mikhaylin V.V., Khalilov V.R. Synchrotron radiation and its application. M.: Publishing House of Moscow State University, 1980. – 278 p. [In Russian].
  14. Ternov I.M., Mikhaylin V.V. Synchrotron radiation. Theory and experiment. M.: Energoatomizdat, 1986. – 296 p. [In Russian].
  15. Fetisov G.V. Synchrotron radiation. Methods of studying the structure of matter. M.: FIZMATLIT, 2007. – 672 p. [In Russian].
  16. Mikhaylin V.V. Synchrotron radiation in spectroscopy. M.: University Book, 2011. – 164 p. [In Russian].
  17. Aulchenko V.M., Evdokov O.V., Zhogin I.L. et al. The detector for the study of explosive processes in a beam of synchrotron radiation. // Instruments and Experimental Techniques, no. 3, 2010, p. 20-35. [In Russian].
  18. Tolochko B.P., Lyakhov N.C., Zhogin I.L. et al. Diffraction and scattering with nanosecond resolution. http://ssrc.inp.nsk.su/conf/school11/pdf/13_oct_2011/ Tolochko.pdf [In Russian]

 

The Organization of Stern–Gerlach Laboratory Work on the Base of Innovative Educational Technology
Natalia Dmitrievna Strekal
Yanka Kupala Grodno State University,
g. Grodno, Ozheshko, 22, 230023, Belarus; e-mail: nat@grsu.by
Received December 4, 2015                                                                PACS 32.10.Dk

The aim of work is the conjugation of computer laboratory work and innovative educational technology of didactic heuristics to drive the cognitive process for modern students. In the capacity of heuristic task, the investigation of atoms behavior in nonuniform magnetic field and magnetic moment measurement is supposed.
Keywords: spin of electron, spatial quantization, didactic heuristics.

References [in Russian]

  1. Mihaliov A.S. (2013) Didakticheskaya evristika [Didactic heuristics]. Minsk: Rivsh.
  2. Mihaliov A.S. (2006) Obuchenie v parakh smennogo sostava: teoriya i eksperiment Innovatsionnye obrazovatelnye tekhnologii [The training in pair teams of changed composition: theory and experiment]. Innovative educational technologies, no 2(6), pp. 22-29.
  3. Grakov V.E.., Maskevich S.└., Sokolskii └.└., Stelmach G.F., Strekal N.D. (2011) Atomnaya fizika. Teoreticheskie osnovy i laboratornyy praktikum: Uchebnoe posobie. [Atomic physics. Theoretical basis and laboratory workshop: Tutorial]. Minsk: «Novoe znanie», ╠oscow: «INFRA-M».
  4. Acosta V., Clyde L., Cowan C.L., Graham B.J. (1973) Essentials of Modern Physics. New York, Evanston, San Francisco, London: Harper & Row, Publishers.
  5. Astashova U.V. (2014) Teoriya pokoleniy v marketinge [Theory of generations in marketing]. Bulletin of South Ural State University, vol. 8, no 1, pp. 105-108.
  6. Mihaliov A.S. (2007) Protivorechiya gruppovogo sposoba obucheniya i innovatsii dlya ikh preodoleniya [Contradictions in-group method of learning and innovation to overcome them]. Innovative educational technologies, no 1(9), pp. 13-23.
  7. Maskevich S.└. (2006) Atomnaya fizika. Testovye zadaniya: uchebnoe posobie [Atomic physics. Tests: A Tutorial]. Grodno: GrSU.
  8. Maskevich S.└. (2010) Atomnaya fizika. Praktikum po resheniyu zadach: uchebnoe posobie [Atomic physics. Workshop of problems solving a tutorial]. Minsk: High Sc.

 

Thermodynamics in the Course of Military High School Physics
A.E. Aizentson
MIIT (Moscow), Ryazan Filial, 390013
Str. Seminars, d. 44/3; Ryazan, Russia; e-mail: fonon-41@mail.ru
Received March 03, 2016                                                                           PACS 01.40.gb

As part of a professional orientation of teaching physics in the work the implementation of the thermodynamic cycle in a firearm are discussed. Its comparison with the traditionally used in these cycles the internal combustion engine is made. It indicates on the certain aspects of the historical development of heat engines and firearms. The material in this work can be used in the educational process as well as in teaching and research activities of students and cadets.
Keywords: thermodynamic cycle, cartridge ball, internal ballistics, internal combustion engine.

References [in Russian]:

  1. Aizentson A.E. Physical bases of arms and military equipment. – Ryazan: Ministry of Defense, Combined Military Academy of the Armed Forces, RVVDKU, 2014. – 205 p.
  2. Aizentson A.E. The course of physics. Second edition, revised and expanded. – M.: Vyishaya Shkola, 2009, 374 p.
  3. Ilyin V.A., Kudryavtsev V.V. History and methodology of physics. 2nd second edition, revised and expanded. – M.: Yurayt, 2014. – 579 p.
  4. Carmen W. ═istory of firearms. – Tsentrpoligraf, 2006. – 304 p.
  5. Korolev A.A. (ed.), Kucherov V.G. (ed.) Physical basis of the device and operation of small arms and cannon, artillery and rocket weapons. Textbook for High Schools. – Volgograd: Publishing House of Volgograd State Technical University, 2002. – 560 p.
  6. Gorokhov M.S. Internal ballistics of trunk systems. – M.: Publishing House of the Central Research Institute of Information, 1985. – 160 p.

 

The Physical Model for Active Phase of Human Labor
Yu. B. Kotov1   and T. A. Semenova2
1M.V. Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences 4 Miusskaya pl., Moscow, 125047, Russia; eBmail: kotsem@voxnet.ru
2National Research Nuclear University MEPhI
31 Kashirskoe sh., Moscow, 115409, Russia; eBmail: contreraskosha@yandex.ru

Recieved April 13, 2016                                                                            PACS 87.85.Tu

A simple physical model for analysis of medical measurements is used. We consider the model of cervical dilatation of parous women having a seam on uterus. The dynamics of the channel dilatation is strongly differing at different patients. We convert the time to universal scale giving exact mathematical concept of process. The concept gives the prognostic rule for patients separation on two classes: the class with successful spontaneous delivery and a class delivery with recommended surgery.
Keywords: physical model, labor, cervical channel, cervical dilatation, active phase, universal scale, prognostic rule.

References [In Russian]

  1. Shalaev O.N. Some prognostic criteria for permition natural delivery after cesarian operation // Med. diss., M., 1994.
  2. Tsyv’an P.B. Delivery pain – the evil or the benefit? http://mama.tomsk.ru/birth/pain/pain6.html
  3. Repina M.A. Hysterorrhexis. L.: Medicine, 1984. – 204 p.
  4. Gelfand I.M., Rozental B.I., Shifrin M.A. Scetches about teamwork of mathematicians and doctors. M., Nauka, 1989. – 272 p.
  5. Kotov Yu.B. New mathematical approach to medical diagnostic problems. – M.: Editorial URSS. 2004. – 328 p.
  6. Friedman E.A. Labor. Clinical Evaluation and Management. – 2 nd Ed. New York. 1978. – 406 p.
  7. Chernukha E.A. Natuary. – M.: Medicine, 1991. – 288 p.
  8. Antonov V.F., Chernysh A.M., Pasechnik V.I., et al. Biophysics. By ed. V.F. Antonov. M.: Vlados, 1999. – 288 p.

9. Detsherevski V.I. Mathematical models of muscular contraction. – M., Nauka, 1977. – 161 p.

On the Issue of Studying Electron-Atom Interactions at the Chair of Optics of Physics Faculty of SPSU
Alla Alexandrovna Mityureva
Saint Petersburg State University 198504, St. Petersburg, Ulyanovskaia, 3; e-mail: mitalal@mail.ru
Received October 20, 2015                                                                        PACS 34.80.Dp

The article describes the considerations that are in base of the teaching of physics of electron-atom interactions at the chair of optics of physics faculty of Saint Petersburg State University. The course is based largely on studies on the subject conducted at the chair. The experimental and theoretical methods for the study of the problem are considered. An attractive feature of the course is to provide simplicity and accessibility of presentation, combined with its completeness and rigorous.
Keywords: atomic physics, electron-atom interaction, the scattering cross section.

References

  1. Spectroscopy of gase-discharge plasma. Ed. S. E. Frish, “Nauka”, Leningrad, 1970.
  2. N.P. Penkin, A.A. Mityureva. Excitation of neon and helium lines in the collision of electrons with metastable atoms // Opt. and spect., 1975, vol. 38, no. 2, p. 404-406.
  3. N.P. Penkin, A.A. Mityureva. Electron impact excitation cross sections of metastable states of neon atom // Opt. and spect., 1983, vol. 55, no. 2, p. 393-396.
  4. A.A. Mityureva, N.P. Penkin. Effective step-by-step excitation cross sections of helium atom in collisions of electrons with metastable atoms // Opt. and spect., 1989, vol. 66, no. 6, p. 1220-1224.
  5.  A.A. Mityureva, V.V. Smirnov. Excitation of heavy rare gases to metastable states by electron impact. // J. Phys. B., 1994, vol. 27, no. 9, p. 1869-1880.
  6. A.N. Zavilopulo, A.A. Mityureva, E.Ju. Remeta, A.V. Snegursky, O.B. Shpenik. Formation of metastable atoms and molecules in collisions with electrons. Saint Petersburg State University publishing, Saint Petersburg, 2007, 346 p.
  7. A.A. Mityureva, G.A. Ponomarenko, I.A. Shevkunov. Determination of three-photon ionization cross sections of xenon atoms from comparison with electron ionization. // Optics and Spect., 2014, vol. 116, no. 4, p. 534-537.
  8. S. Sunakava. Quantum theory of scattering, Moscow, Mir, 1979.
  9. Directory of constants of elementary processes involving atoms, ions, electrons, photons. Ed. A.G. Zhiglinsky. Ch. 2. A. A. Mityureva. The scattering of electrons by excited atoms. The scattering of electrons with the formation of metastable states. Saint Petersburg State University publishing, 1994.
  10. G.F. Drukarev. Collisions of electrons with atoms and molecules. Nauka, Moscow, 1978.
  11. A.A. Mityureva, V.V. Smirnov. Electron excitation cross section energy behaviour approximation for helium atom, // Opt & Spectr. 1993, vol. 74, no. 1, p. 6–11.
  12. A.A. Mityureva, V.V. Smirnov. Electron Impact Excitation Cross Sections of Helium Atom Levels from the 2 3S1 Metastable State According to Experiment and Theory. Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 76, Suppl. 1, 2002, pp. S109–S114.
  13. A.A. Mityureva. Electron-impact excitation of Kr 5s, 5p levels. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2011, issue 59, p. 949-952.

 

The Momenta in the Reflection and Refraction of Waves
V.I. Tsoy
Saratov State University, 410012, Saratov, Astrakhanskaya str. 83;
e-mail: tsoyvi@info.sgu.ru
Received March 25, 2016                                                           PACS 41.20.Jb, 42.25.Bs

In the oblique incidence of electromagnetic wave on the dielectric the tangential field momentum is saved as the sum of the tangential momenta in the reflected wave and the refracted wave according to Minkowski. Also there are the mechanical momentum from the discontuinity of energy density in the balance of the normal momentum.
Keywords: Abraham momentum, Minkowski momentum, ponderomotive forces.

References

  1. Landau L. D., Lifshitz E. M., Pitaevskii L.P. Electrodynamics of Continious Vedia. – Pergamon Press, 1984.
  2. Tamm I. E. Principles of theory of electricity. – Moscow: Nauka, 1989. [in Russian]
  3. Feinman R., Leighton R., Sands M. The Feinman Lectures on Physics. Vol. 2 – Addison-Wesley, 1964.
  4. Griffits D. J. Introduction to Electrodynamics. – Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1999.
  5. Skobeltsyn D. V. // Phys. Usp. 1973. Vol. 16.  P. 381.
  6. Ginzburg V. L. // Phys. Usp. 1973. Vol. 16.  P. 434.
  7. Ginzburg V. L. & Ugarov V. A. // Phys. Usp. 1976. Vol. 19. P. 94.
  8. Veselago V.G. // Phys. Usp. 2009. Vol. 52. P. 649.
  9. Makarov V.P., Rukhadze A.A. // Phys. Usp. 2009. Vol. 52. P. 937.
  10. Davidovich M.V. // Phys. Usp. 2010. Vol. 53. P. 595.
  11. Griffits D.J. // Am. J. Phys. 2012. Vol. 80(1), P. 7.
  12. Barnett S.M. // Phys. Rev. Lett. 2010. Vol. 104. P. 070401.
  13. Mansuripur M. // Optics Express. 2004. Vol. 12. P. 5375.
  14. Jackson J. D. Classical Electrodynamics. – New York: Wiley, 1962. 641 p.