V. 4, N 3, 1998
University Physics Education in a Changing World: Prospects for the Future
E. Leonard Jossem
The first part of this paper provides historical background and a discussion of the evolution of university physics education in the U.S.A. including significant developments of the last decade, which point towards the future. The second part involves the audience in an educational experiment.
Constructing Physics in a Behaviorist Environment: Persistent Challenges in
Physics Education at the University
Courses for the students in non-science related professions have been a focal point for new curriculum development which recommends the modification of some traditional teaching practices in physics, not only teach physics, but teach students. The challenge in the university physics education community of preparing students to think like scientists extends beyond better curricula. An overview of the interface between these challenges and the physics classroom is discussed.
The present state of General Physics course for MSU physics students is discussed. Main directions of its development are considered taking into consideration changed social situation in Russia and new educational standards. The attention is paid for the following problems: course program contents optimization (with determination of fundamental physics phenomena set); the correlation between lectures, classes, labs and home practice, educational standards; the development of experimental facilities (physics labs, lecture demonstrations) in modern situation; educational support with modern technologies, especially computers; contemporary scientific facts contents of course; producing of modern textbooks, including electronic books; the coordination of Universities efforts at Russia, international cooperation.
Physical Problems of Ecology and Ecological Education at the Faculty of
Physics of the Moscow State University
V.I.Trukhin, G.I.Petrunin, Yu.A.Pirogov, K.V.Pokazeyev
Main scientific directions in the field of physical ecology and approaches to ecological education at the faculty of physics of the Moscow state university. Development of ecological scientific educational problems at the faculty of physics is realized in the frame of special program "Physical problems of ecology (physical ecology)", where about 20 divisions of the faculty of physics take part. Goals of the program are 1) association and coordination of scientific work in ecology; 2) stimulation of cross-disciplinary investigations; 3) preparation of scientific staff and faculty in physical ecology; 4) propaganda of ecological knowledge. General sections of the program: 1) natural physical and geophysical processes, forming ecological systems; 2) influence of human factors on near-earth space; 3) interaction of physical fields and living organisms; 4) physical methods of environmental monitoring, aerospace one; 5) ecologically pure methods of energy production; 6) experimental investigations on the base of selected polygons; 7) Educational programs on ecology; 8) international cooperation. The paper discusses as well some methodical aspects of teaching of physical ecology problems in universities.
A new textbook on optics for universities is presented: S.A.Akhmanov and S.Yu.Nikitin. Physical Optics. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1997 (500 pages). Providing a picture of modern physical optics as an expert would see it, this clear exposition of the most useful ideas of optics is accessible to undergraduate students. This textbook covers both classical and modern optics and is based on a course offered by Moscow State University in recent years - the main objective of which was to provide a comprehensive presentation of the fundamentals of the subject. Containing a much higher proportion of topical material than conventional textbooks the contents include electromagnetic theory of light, optical radiation physics and the physics of interaction of radiation with matter. Among the contemporary topics discussed most comprehensively are lasers, nonlinear optics, and new methods of optical spectroscopy. Readership: senior undergraduates and graduate students of physics. Teachers and research workers in optics.
Problems of Contemporary Education: The Course "Physics Images"
L.G.Antoshina, S.S. Krotov, V.I.Nedel'ko, B.A.Strukov
The analyses of the contemporary society shows that the main goal of the higher education is to provide the knowledge, capable to ensure the personality to reach the success in any field of his or her activities.
Knowledge for the individual is the information through getting which the individual form the image, i.e. interpretation of the information, corresponding to which the personality feels, thinks and behaves. It is the ability to form images that eventually determines the success.
The problem of teaching how to form and then use the images is highly difficult, as it requires grasping the vast amount of differently oriented and hence uneasily perceptible information. We propose the solution of the problem of education in this direction not as a whole but taking physics an example.
In our report we cover the following problems: what should be the requirements to the discipline the notions of which are used for the formation of adequate images; what should be the way of constructing the course able both to teach how to form images and to master the concepts of physics.
We consider the structure of the new course "Physics Images" and the ways of its realization under contemporary conditions.
Problems of Higher Educational Institutions' Fundamental Education in Physics
S.I.Krylova, I.A.Malinenko, S.A.Chudinova
The problems of teaching physics within the modern requirements for the students majoring in engineering are observed in the following report. The low level of knowledge of physics and mathematics the students obtain while in high schools makes it difficult to teach the course of physics according to the higher educational institution's requirements. There occurs a necessity of using within traditional forms such various methods of the educational process' activization as:
a) constant updating the work programs of the course to combine both fundamental and applied aspects of physics;
b) including the most significant chapters into the list of discussions for the seminars;
c) using novel informational technologies for practical work in laboratories;
d) developing courses form which list the students can chose those that include chapters regarding the basics of nowadays; technologies.
The study process organization demands constant research work in the field of methods of education. The experience gained from this work is discussed in the report.
Students in some Boise State introductory physics labs conduct their experiments in 3-person teams with assigned roles. This approach reduces redundancy and fosters cooperative learning.
Problems of the Modern Education: "Individual and His World"
V.I.Nedel'ko, V.N.Prudnikov, A.G.Khundzhua
Nowadays, the laws of the world around are studied aiming to use them in professional activity. However, all the human activity is governed by his inner world - the world of his subjective estimates and emotions. Both the knowledge of the external world should be achieved by a special education, and the knowledge of the internal world should be also achieved by a special education. Individuality, subjectivity of the internal world and inevitability of its agreement with the external world determines the specific character of education.
The report deals with the analysis of appearing problems and with the methods of their resolution. It is shown that an effective method to do this is a course of lectures, the main principle of which is to show the world seen by people who created it. It is proposed this course to be something of an anthology containing both the knowledge of various branches of science and the knowledge beyond science. The specific course and the possibility of its realization under contemporary conditions are considered.
For Students of Mathematical Specialties
Physics of XX century and a new mutual relation of mathematics and fundamental physics. Ontological meaning of mathematical models. Necessity of accounting of these peculiarities in physics education in connection with fundamentalization of education and outstripping character of education. Methodic of teaching the achievements of fundamental physics essentially connecting with the modern mathematics to students of mathematical specialties. Creation and experience of use of the teaching-methodical complex on subject "Fundamental physics and modern mathematics" which consists of curriculums and courses by choice for the basic high education (bachelor level) and for postgraduate school (master level) at Department of Mathematics, MPGU.
On the Possibilities of the Use of Personal and Group Possibilities Activating Method Elements in Physics Education
New method of activating in physics education is discussed.
The Law of Inertia as a Variation Principle Known to the Author "Principia"
N. I. Evseevichev
In this paper, we justify the assertion that Newton's mechanics is based on the variation principle stated in "Principia" as the law of inertia. Using the methods of analysis that there known to Newton (without making use of the variation formalism), we show that the equation of motion (the second law) follows from the variation principal.
Newton's variation principle is related to a paradigm essentially different from what of Moperthuis who rediscovered it later. Namely, those motions are realized in the nature that are more stable than other possible ones.
Statement and justification of the variation principle by very simple methods of analysis make possible to use it in the university courses of general physics (in particular, in mechanics, electromagnetism and atomic physics). This makes the course more systematic, consistent and fundamental.
Vector Magnetic Potential In General Physics Course
L.I.Antonov, G.A.Mironova, E.V.Lukasheva, N.I.Chistyakova
The methodical problems of discussion of concept "vector magnetic potential" (VMP) in the general physics course are considered. The examples of the description with the help VMP of a magnetic field of a stationary electrical current, both in free space, and at presence magnetics are given. The physical sense of VMP is opened and the "reality" of a magnetic field of VMP is emphasized. The examples of VMP measurement and also account of VMP and use it for the description of observable physical effects are resulted. The work is intended for the teachers reading lecture and conducting seminar at a general physics course for physical specialities.
Problems For Lecture Courses On Superconductive And Single Electronics
Contents, level of difficulty and role of problems for lecture courses on superconductive and single electronics are discussed from viewpoint of training course in modern nano-electronics. The book of problems in electrodynamics of superconductors is presented as a first step in compiling of the books of problems in the field of superconductive and single electronics. This book consists of 100 problems in both phenomenological and microscopic theories as well as in Josephson effect.
Fractal Physics as a Science about the Universe - the Base of Solution of a Physical Education Problem for Forming a New World Outlook about Nature, Human Being, and Consciousness
An attempt to solve the fundamental problem of physics education basing on the new science about the Universe "Fractal physics" is described.
New approach using computers to the modernization and organization of tasks of MGU Physical department's general nuclear practice is described. It includes computer control of knowledge, computer imitation of experiment, data handling and possibilities of remote working with hole tasks or their parts. New realization of uran fission task including Internet possibilities is described.
Measurement set-up consists of the black body model, temperature stabilizer, and beam chopper and pyroelectric infrared detector. In order to determine temperature dependence of the black body radiant power a spectrally independent full power range pyroelectric detector is used.
Measurement set-up consist of the light source (a laser diode) with a power supply, a polariser, a Pockels cell, a high-voltage (DC-AC) supply, an analyser, a photocell and ammeter. The measurement consists in determination of the Pockels cell voltage dependence of the photocell current.
The Imitation of EPR-Bohm Quantum Correlation in Classical Radiofrequency Experiment
N.V.Evdokimov, V.P.Komolov, S.P.Kulik
A simple radiofrequency electronic model is considered which imitates the EPR-Bohm pair correlation of stochastic signals and the fulfillment of the Bell inequality. These questions are of great physical importance, and the numerous optical experiments of related type were performed. But the substance of the problem is difficult for understanding in spite of repeated attempts of the popularization. The electronic model is formed the basis of the training work for the students of the quantum radiophysics chair. The analysis of the model helps to grasp the distinction between the classical and quantum correlation in EPR experiments. The property of stochastic phase synchronism of degenerated parametric radiofrequency generators is used in the model.
Computer Control Workstation for Studying Pulse and Fourier Magnetic
Yu.P.Danilov, G.E.Kibrik, A.Yu.Polyakov
The workstation applied for the machine researches in the field of solid state physics and chemistry by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and quadrupole resonance (NQR) techniques is described. The workstation technical equipment consists of pulse Fourier spectrometer, interface modules and IBM PC/AT compatible personal computer. The workstation software is designed for the interactive governing experiment, making current and postexperimental processing of measurement results. The using of fast Fourier transformation of the free-induction decay signal and the measuring of spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation times allow to study the spectral and relaxation characteristics of a sample investigated. The workstation described is applied for carrying out laboratory jobs included in curriculums such as "Solid state physics", "Physics of magnetic phenomena", "Radiospectroscopy" and "Computer controlled scientific experiments".
Computer Work Classes on Superconductive Electronics
V.K.Kornev, A.V.Arzumanov, O.V.Snigirev
Course of computer work classes on superconductive electronics is elaborated. The course consists of a set of problems for numerical simulation of dynamics of basic analog and digital devices based on Josephson effect. Automated high performance PSCAN program, which has been elaborated at laboratory of Cryoelectronics of Physics Departments of MSU, is used not only for the study of various sets of current-voltage characteristics, but also for analyses of dynamics of the fast processes in the systems with values of characteristic time of order of 10 -10 :10 -13 s. It is extremely difficult to analyze such fast processes in a real experimental study of the systems. Therefore it holds much promise for teaching process.
Method for teaching the diffraction self-reproduction effect for light field of spatio-periodical structure is discussed. This brilliant effect of classical wave optics, that was discovered in the first half of XIX century by an English physicist H.F.Talbot, is undeservedly beyond the programs of most educational courses. Nowadays, a very perspective branch of modern laser physics is based on this effect.
It is given in this report the physical explanation of this effect and the material for its lecture teaching on base of Fresnel diffraction theory in frames of General physics educational programs. The scheme and methodical description of physical experiment on a lecture, visually showing main conformities to the self-reproduction effect are presented. Current applications of Talbot effect are shortly discussed.
I.V.Golovnin, B.V.Zhdanov, N.G.Podkopaeva
The purpose of this paper is to present an experience of teaching and training students in Laser Teaching Laboratory (LTL) of Physics Department of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University. This Laser Teaching Laboratory has been created at MSU for students specializing in laser physics and nonlinear optics. But now this lab is used also for retraining specialists working in the field of biology, chemistry, medicine, etc., who use laser equipment in their work.
Based on this laboratory, a new teaching-training course, named "The Experimental Laser Physics" was developed. This course combines both lectures and practical training on teaching set-ups in Laser Teaching Laboratory.
The lecture programs, the detailed description of the laboratory experiments and the methodology of teaching are presented in this paper.
Yu. D.Lantukh, S.N.Pashkevitch
Proposed report is about description of laboratory work on demonstration and studying of dynamic holograms, written in colored polymeric films by low power He-Ne laser. The work is part of the laboratory training on optical methods in the informatics. It was developed in the Technical Physics department of Orenburg State University and can be used in the corresponding subjects.
Block of Works to Structural Training Laboratory: "Optics of Crystals and Quantum Electronics"
For servicing the students of different professions in OSU the special training laboratory having module structure is designed on the department of technical physics. Separate blocks (modules) comprise of itself several laboratory work, united by one themes. Arrangement several modules allows to form the training laboratory on the determined course, the most packed agreeable to standard of one or another specialty. So module "Optics of crystals and quantum electronics" is used when the special laboratory on the solid state physics, quantum electronics, bases of laser physics, interaction of radiation with the material are formed for specialties "Radiophysics and electronics", "Industrial electronics", "Engineering in the medical and biological practice".
A.P.Sukhorukov, A.V.Sheludchenkov, A.A.Volkov, G.V.Kozlov, A.I.Ritus
In the kit the radiation with wavelength 2-mm is used. In comparison with an optical range it gives a number of advantages:
Simplicity of manufacturing.
With performance of experiments, it is not required exact adjustment.
The choice of wavelength 2 mm allows to form quasiparallel beam, using mirrors, lens, polarizers and other elements with the reasonable cross sizes ~ 10 cm, and any experiment is placed on the plate by the size of 750 mm x 600 mm.
The generator of mm wave radiation of a few mW power is IMPATT diode with a feed voltage of 16 V, i.e. there are no dangerous voltages.
Experiments of the educational kit: Fabry-Perot interferometer. Research and transformation of polarization of MM wave radiation. Diffraction lattice. Mach Zander interferometer. Determination of refraction index of material in MM wave region.
Computer Methods of Education in the "Nuclear and Particle Physics" Course
O.I.Vasilenko, B.S.Ishkhanov, E.J.Kabin
Course "Nuclear and particle physics" at the MGU Physical department. General purposes of the course. Course structure: lectures, seminars, practice. General tasks of the course computerization. Lectures in the Internet. Seminar studies and permanent knowledge control. General nuclear practice tasks modernization. New tasks and remote education. Computer-control admittance to the tasks. Special courses and practice and their connection with the course.
Analysis of Peculiarity of Essentially Non-Linear Oscillation on Example of Computer Model of Duffing Oscillator
In this work regularities of essentially non-linear oscillation are showed on example of computer model of Duffing oscillator. For this oscillator the computer mechanics model was processed. Also is showed bifurcational character of stationary forced oscillation that subjected to script of Feigenbaum. Dynamic ordering are exposed with the help of simples and intuitive phases diagrams and corresponding Puankare reflection. Application of this computer model permit to explain in frame of general physics the fundamental regularities of essentially non-linear oscillation.
The Modeling of Light Pulses Propagation in Disperse Media: The Spectral Approach Advantages
V.A.Vysloukh, K.G.Skirtach, E.Marti Panameno
The advantages of spectral approach in modeling of light pulses propagation in disperse media is discussed.
Total Computer Modernization of The Practice Task in which the Reactions of Light Nuclei Fission by Neutrons are Investigated
New realization of the MGU Physical department general nuclear practice task in which tracks of nuclear particles in photoemulsions are investigated using microscopes is described. Transfer of the task to computer enables imitation of radiation processes, tracks formation, automatization of measuring and data handling. It moves task closer to modern situation in nuclear and particle physics, where experimental measurings and data handling are separated.
K.A.Valeev, G.R.Akmanova, G.I.Zamanova
The study of courses of total physics occupies a leading place in the process of teaching in a physics department. The important element of teaching process is a control of acquiring knowledge. As well as traditional forms of a knowledge control (colloquium, quizzes, etc.) a multiple-choice test had a wide practice in the last years. This method allows rapidly expose the objective picture of students' knowledge and corrects a teaching process. Tests for a current control of total physics knowledge are presented in this work. This method of control has the advantage in comparison with the traditional methods as work experience has showed.
Computerized Experiment in High School and its Importance In Preparing
Of Future Students-Physicists
The physics education in high school is the important component of continuous physics education and the background for further training of physics students. Using computer in school physics experiment increases the pupils' interest in physics makes experiments more visual demonstrates modern measurement instruments, expands the range of phenomena investigated. All this allows pupils to distinguish between rough and more accurate physics models of phenomena. The computerized physics experiment can be included in teaching process by a number of ways, for example by organizing of pupils' research. In the presentation the concrete examples are discussed of using computerized experiment in school physics education.
Practical Training Conducting and Knowledge Control Methodic with the Test Shell
The dividing of the practical training lesson in physics into 2 parts - theoretical and practical -based on PC assistance is presented. Control measures are included into each part and looked like current control. The main points of the theoretical material were repeated in the theoretical part and the assimilation of the stated material as well as the step-by-step method of problems solving. The practical part of the lesson controlled the process and the result of the problem solved.
Two or three lessons a term were devoted to the border testing of the results of knowledge assimilation by students (4 or 5 lessons period). This testing lasts appropriately half of the lesson and includes about 10 tasks to control the formulae knowledge and ability to use them. Testing at the end of the term makes total control. The developed computer Test Shell provided the computer support of practical training lessons and test control at every mentioned stage of students' teaching.
R.N.Kuz'min, A.A.Kuleshov, N.P.Savenkova, S.V.Fillipova
The possibility to explain the interety information field of Navier - Stokes equation in the context of modern concepts about deterministic chaos is discussed. Numerous studies simple information models show roll Navier - Stokes equation in the transport of ideas through the boundary of mind, buoyancy effects in fluids of ideas and so on. Analytical and numerical study of laminar free boundary layer flows in stratified social medium are given.
Modern Information Technologies in Distant Education
Modern information technologies in distant education of physics is discussed.
Problems of availability and expansion of university physics education are discussed. The increased role of a computer in the educational process is noted. Ways of development of university physics education and fundamental physics sciences consisting in their close integration and deep informatization are proposed. Suggested is an idea of a systematic use of a computer for obtaining scientific information and solution of problems of the development of fundamental physics science and the tasks of information science should be considered to be retrieval, storage, processing and transfer of information. The problems of deep informatization of fundamental sciences and university education are proposed to be made a key factor for the rebirth of the software industry of Russia.
EUPEN Sets Up a Permanent Forum on Physics Education
A consortium of more than hundred Physics Departments of European institutions and a few national and international Associations started more than a year ago the European Physics Education Network (EUPEN). Thanks to the support of a 'Thematic Network Project' under the same name and acronym in the framework of the ERASMUS in SOCRATES program of the EU's DGXXII activities started since September 1996. The main activity was the drawing up of a set of questionnaires by the five working groups on (i) the student experience, (ii) curricula structure & development, (iii) organization of physics studies, (iv) the physics career aspect, (v) research in physics teaching.
Development of Physics Distance Learning Concept and It Realization
Development of new information technologies and growth of material basis of Petrozavodsk university allow to introduce the elements of an effective system of distance learning (DL) into the process of physics teaching. We consider that DL is the realization of tutorial process with use of possibilities of modern computer facilities and nets.
In PetrSU the elements of DL are used in all forms of tutoring. For today the basic gains are concentrated on the developments on section "Mechanics". We were created and located on PetrSU Web the server the following materials: methodical support of course "Mechanics"; separate themes of practical occupations supplied with the problems and the step by step instructions of their solution; tests which ensure operating check of the students knowledge of an investigated material as trained and as teacher.
At the same time the lectures electronic course is developed and the virtual physical laboratory is created.
Afterwards all separate elements of DL will be joined in uniform course. This course will be available from open access Internet classes and home computers.
Remote Education and "Radiation" Course
Course "Radiation" in general nuclear practice of MGU Physical department. General conception of the course. Realization. Experience of the work. Evolution. Problems of courses transfer to the Internet. Independent control of knowledge.