Physics in Higher Education
˘. 5, N 3, 1999

The contents
3 Introduction
A.D. Gladun
5 General Physics Course in MIPT
A.D. Gladun, F.F. Igoshin
17 Faculty of Theoretical Physics in MIPT
S.P. Alliluev, Yu.M. Belousov
23 Physics Olympiads of the Schoolboys: History and Prospects
S.M. Kozel, V.A. Orlov
30 Physical Paradoxes as Consequence of the Limitations of the Real Phenomena Models
A.S. Kondratjev, M.E. Filippov
37 Optics in the Course of General Physics in MIPT
S.M. Kozel, G.R. Lokshin
41 Quantum Interference Phenomena in the Course of General Physics of MIPT
Yu.M. Tsipenyuk
54 Once more about Brakhistochrone and Tautochrone
A.A. Ivanov, A.A. Lukyanov
62 Technical Universities of the 21st Century: New Place in the Economics of Russia
A.D. Gladun, G.V. Krasovsky, A. A. Tupichenkov
74 Students Knowledge Control in Learning Physics Course
K.V. Pokazeev, Ig.L. Akselrod, Yu.P. Kurkin
78 Collision of g-Quantum and an Electron of Arbitrary Energy and Impulse
G.N. Freiberg
84 Frenel Diffraction at a Circular Slit
G.N. Freiberg
90 Forming of Non-Classical Ideas by Study of Classical Mechanics
V.V. Fomenko
97 Lorentz Transformation Interpreted as the Transformation of Oblique Coordinates
M.M. Kononenko, Yu.T. Medvedev
104 Information
110 Interferometer Apodisation of Optics Systems
A.V. Bondarenko, N.G. Vlasov, E.V. Lyalina
114 Laboratory of Rigid Bodies Dynamics in Practical General Physics Course
E.I. Vasil'ev, A.S. Nifanov, A.M. Saletsky, A.I. Slepkov
125 Laboratory Training "Transferred-Electron Effect in Semiconductors" in MIPT General Physics Laboratory Course
F.F. Igoshin, I.G. Pochernin
138 The Cross-Section of Electron-Atoms Interaction
A.P. Ovchinnikov, A.A. Tevrukov, G.N. Freiberg
147 Study of Resonance Absorption of Gamma-Quanta (M├ssbauer Effect) in The Laboratory of General Physics MIPT
F.F. Igoshin, Yu.A. Samarskiy and Yu.M. Tsipenyuk
158 Methodical Peculiarities of Special Practical Work, Taking into Account a Student Specialization
T.I. Shishelova, L.V. Chilikanova and T.V. Sozinova
161 The Lecture Demonstration of Huygens-Fresnel Principle
P.V. Kazarin, S.N. Mensov, N.S. Stepanov
166 Program and Structure of Organization of Educational Process in the Course of Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics
S.B. Moscovsky
172 New Pedagogical Technologies in the System of Pre-High-School Education in the Moscow Physics Technology Institute (State University)
T.A. Chugunova, Yu.A. Samarskiy, A.D. Gladun, G.N. Yakovlev, I.G. Shompolov
179 Physical Laboratory Practice Structural Features in Training Alarm Security Systems Specialists
V.A. Loginov, N.K. Sedykh, Yu.V. Spichkin
184 Natural-Scientific Aspects of Ecology Teaching in High Educational Institutes of Defense Ministry
N.A. Martemyanova, G.K. Starostenko, V.V. Chernyshev
188 Abstracts

 

 

Abstracts

General Physics Course in MIPT

A.D. Gladun, F.F. Igoshin

The Moscow Physics Technology Institute (State university)

The methodical and organizational principles of teaching of general physics course in MIPT are stated.

 

Faculty of Theoretical Physics in MIPT

S.P. Alliluev, Yu.M. Belousov

The Moscow Physics Technology Institute (State university)

The brief history of formation of faculty of theoretical physics is told, the features of teaching of theoretical physics in MIPT are stated. The structure of the course is formulated and made reasonable. The brief characteristic of all courses read by faculty is given. The important role of equation of a lecture and practical (seminar) component is marked.

 

Physics Olympiads of the Schoolboys: History and Prospects

S.M. Kozel, V.A. Orlov

Moscow Institute of Physics Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region

The aims and organizing problems of carrying out one of the kinds of intellectual competitions of students in our country - Russian physical Olympiad are discussed. The problems of training the Russian team to participate in the International Physics Olympiad and results achieved are represented.

 

Physical Paradoxes as Consequence of the Limitations of the Real Phenomena Models

A.S. Kondratjev, M.E. Filippov

Russian University of People's Friendship

The role of physical paradoxes by the student's physical education is discussed. The specific attention is paid for those paradoxes, which are not connected with some hidden mistakes in the logical discourses. More important are those paradoxes which become from the superceding of limit of validness for the specific physical models. As an example a well known in mechanics - the paradox of Paintleve - is given, which is connected with the motion of the system of absolutely hard bodies with connections and friction between them.

 

Optics in the Course of General Physics in MIPT

S.M. Kozel, G.R. Lokshin

Moscow Institute of Physics Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region

The basic principles and ideas in the course of wave optics and its place in the course of general physics at Moscow Institute of Physics Technology are described. The optical wave phenomena studied in this course provide graphic illustrations of wave processes, common to all divisions of modern physics. With the advent of lasers, holography, and the application of methods in the general theory of oscillations, optics had acquired a new shape. This has affected wave optics making it an integral part of the course of general physics. A feature of general physics as taught at MIPT is the application of teaching techniques using computers. Several of the computer simulation programs developed at the physics chair are used to illustrate lectures on physics.

 

Quantum Interference Phenomena in the Course of General Physics of MIPT

Yu.M. Tsipenyuk

Moscow Institute of Physics Technology

Quantum interference phenomena which are the subject of lectures on quantum macrophysics are discussed. It is shown that the present-day experimental and theoretical successes in this field can be formulated without invoking of complicated mathematical approach and fit naturally into the course of general physics of high-schools and universities.

 

Once more about Brakhistochrone and Tautochrone

A.A. Ivanov, A.A. Lukyanov

Russian Scientific Center "Kurchatov Institute"

The little known original E. Bernoulli method of solving the problem of the curve of the quickest descent of mass point in gravitational field based on optical interpretation of mechanics problem is presented. A new simple method of solving the problem of the curve along which a mass point will be oscillate with the period which does not depend on amplitude is proposed.

 

Technical Universities of the 21st Century: New Place in the Economics of Russia

A.D. Gladun, G.V. Krasovsky, A.A. Tupichenkov

Moscow Institute of Physics Technology (State University)

Stankin Moscow University of Technology

The development tendency of technical universities - their transformation to universities-technoparks is revealed. This process is accompanied by reducing of government financing part of universities. The flow power of innovation projects is increasing by this as far as more and more projects are financing by nonstate organizations. These macrointegration processes take place under patronage of financial-industrial groups and may reduce to formation of technoparks - powerful innovation centers exceeding with possibilities of previous soviet science cities.

 

Students Knowledge Control in Learning Physics Course

K.V. Pokazeev, Ig.L. Akselrod, Yu.P. Kurkin

Moscow State University of Applied Biotechnology

Methods of control testing are considered and experience of application of rating system of student knowledge evaluation is discussed in learning physic course at Moscow State University of Applied Biotechnology.

 

Collision of g-Quantum and an Electron of Arbitrary Energy and Impulse

G.N. Freiberg

Moscow Institute of Physics Technology

The article deals with two (analytic and geometric) ways too solve the problem of collision of g-quantum and an electron of arbitrary values of their energy and impulse. The author dwells on spatial symmetry of the problem, which allows to draw a conclusion on the manner of recording the particles after interaction.

 

Frenel Diffraction at a Circular Slit

G.N. Freiberg

Moscow Institute of Physics Technology

The topic of diffraction of electro-magnetic waves at a circular aperture is considered through solving problems. The notion of source power is introduced, which allows to solve more complicated problems when a lens is set in the aperture. The method works for all possible parameters the optical system.

 

Forming of Non-Classical Ideas by Study of Classical Mechanics

V.V. Fomenko

State Flight Academy of Ukraine

The work concerns a problem of forming of the foundations of non-classical thought of students by study of classical mechanics in general physics course on the base of the model of a particle moving under stochastic force action. Main features and value of the model are discussed from methodological and practical points of view.

 

Lorentz Transformation Interpreted as the Transformation of Oblique Coordinates

M.M. Kononenko, Yu.T. Medvedev

Institute of Applied Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences

The special Lorentz transformation is interpreted as the transformation of coordinates from an oblique coordinate system into another such system.

We build on the Euclidean plane two linear oblique coordinate systems K and K' such that 1) the formulas describing the transformation of coordinates from K' to K coincide with the formulas of the special Lorentz transformation connecting the temporal and spatial coordinates of two reference frames; 2) the scales of K and K' are the same. We then show that, up to an unimportant modification, these K and K' are the only two systems satisfying the stated conditions.

 

Interferometer Apodisation of Optics Systems

A.V. Bondarenko, N.G. Vlasov, E.V. Lyalina

The Moscow State Technological University "Stankin"

The small addition to optics, known in a course, to laboratory work on study of a diffraction picture on cracks allowing to discuss statement and the decision of an apodisation task of optical systems is offered.

 

Laboratory of Rigid Bodies Dynamics in Practical General Physics Course

E.I. Vasil'ev, A.S. Nifanov, A.M. Saletsky, A.I. Slepkov

M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University

The purpose of this paper is to present the new students laboratory "Dynamics of rigid bodies" of physics department of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow state university. This educational laboratory has been created for students studying of general physics course. The detailed description of the laboratory experiments and the methodology of teaching are presented in this paper.

 

Laboratory Training "Transferred-Electron Effect in Semiconductors" in MIPT General Physics Laboratory Course

F.F. Igoshin, I.G. Pochernin

Moscow Institute of Physics Technology (State University)

Operation principle of the transferred-electron diode is studied. Current-voltage characteristic and main parameters of the diode are measured. Operating the harmonic oscillator based on the transferred-electron diode is analyzed.

 

The Cross-Section of Electron-Atoms Interaction

A.P. Ovchinnikov, A.A. Tevrukov, G.N. Freiberg

Moscow Institute of Physics Technology

The description of the laboratory work for students for determining the cross-section s of electron-atoms interaction is given. The mechanism of electron scattering on the atoms is described. The experimental set up used for the measurements is described. The electrical scheme and the steps of conducting the work are given. The value of s measured in experiment is ~10-15 cm2.

 

Study of Resonance Absorption of Gamma-Quanta (M├ssbauer Effect) in The Laboratory of General Physics MIPT

F.F. Igoshin, Yu.A. Samarskiy and Yu.M. Tsipenyuk

Moscow Institute of Physics Technology

The installation which makes it possible to study the process of nuclear resonance absorption of gamma-quanta (M├ssbauer effect) by students in a laboratory of general physics is described. Resonance absorption of gamma-quanta from stanum nuclei 119Sn in a compound BaSnO3 is studied at room temperature by means of the Doppler shift technique of Moessbauer emission and absorption lines. Position of the maximum of resonance absorption, its magnitude, and experimental width G of the line and corresponding life-time of the nuclear isomer level 119mSn are determined.

 

Methodical Peculiarities of Special Practical Work, Taking into Account a Student Specialization

T.I. Shishelova, L.V. Chilikanova and T.V. Sozinova

Irkutsk State Technical University

The variant of the program "Physical methods of research" for the students of Irkutsk State Technical University is offered.

 

The Lecture Demonstration of Huygens-Fresnel Principle

P.V. Kazarin, S.N. Mensov, N.S. Stepanov

Nizny Novgorod State University

The lecture experiments with the use of surface waves which demonstrate explicitly formation of reflected and transmitted wave fronts as a result of interference between elementary secondary waves, according to Huygens-Fresnel principle, is presented. For visualization of this process along the separating boundary the rigid periodical grating whose individual cells could be considered as the discrete secondary sources is arranged. Recommendations on optimization of the experiment parameters and examples of recorded wave patterns are given.

 

Program and Structure of Organization of Educational Process in the Course of Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics

S.B. Moscovsky

K.D. Ushinsky State Pedagogic University of Yaroslavl'

The authors present a program of a section in the course of Theoretical Physics "Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics" for the students of physics of a pedagogical university. We offer a probated structure of the educational process aimed at the optimum combination of theory and practice and a system of organization of independent work of students.

 

New Pedagogical Technologies in the System of Pre-High-School Education in the Moscow Physics Technology Institute (State University)

T.A. Chugunova, Yu.A. Samarskiy, A.D.Gladun, G.N.Yakovlev,

I.G. Shompolov

Moscow Institute of Physics Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region

The system of selection, training and education of the gifted youth at a stage pre-high-school of additional education, and also activity on perfection of skill of the teachers of mathematics and physics as through work at Correspondence Physics-technical School is described at Moscow Physics Technology Institute (Technical University) and through system of courses of improvement of qualification.

 

Physical Laboratory Practice Structural Features in Training Alarm Security Systems Specialists

V.A. Loginov, N.K. Sedykh, Yu.V. Spichkin

Voronez Institute of Internal Affairs Ministry of Russian Federation

Physical laboratory practice structural features in training alarm security systems specialists are described. Special attention is paid to links demonstration of studying physical phenomena and security system devices operating principles.

 

Natural-Scientific Aspects of Ecology Teaching in High Educational Institutes of Defense Ministry

N.A. Martemyanova, G.K. Starostenko, V.V. Chernyshev

Military Aviation Technical University, chair of physics

(Military-Air Engineering Academy by N.E. Zhukovsky)

The program on "Ecology" course is presented as the essential part of general educational discipline "The bases of theory of natural processes", which was developed in Military aviation Technical University. The central point of the program shifted to the general laws of ecological systems processing and to the specific biogeochemical cycles in forming and surviving of ecosystems, their stability at the acting of anthropogenic factors as far as at biological and social consequences after disturbing of ecosystems stability.