Physics in Higher Education

. 5, N 4, 1999

The contents

3 Introduction
7 The Meaning of the Physical Interpretation of Probabilistic Concepts for General Physical Education
A.D. Sukhanov
14 Actual Problems of Teaching General Physics at the Pedagogical Universities
Yu.A. Gorokhovatsky, V.M. Grabov, S.S. Gavrilov, N.P. Divin, V.A. Komarov, D.E. Temnov, S.Yu. Trofimova, I.I. Hudyakova, O.V. Tchistyakova, T.A. Yakovleva
23 New Approach to the Content of the Discipline "The Concepts of Modern Natural Sciences"
O.N. Golubeva, A.D. Sukhanov
30 Physical Models of Electronic Transport Phenomena in Studying of the Grounds of the Solid State Theory
S.D. Khanin, E.L. Antifeeva
37 Thermodynamics of Free Expansion of Ideal Gas
A.N. Gordeyev
45 A Holistic Approach to the Teaching of Physics at Higher Military Educational Instituting
A.E. Aizentson
50 Adaptation of First Year Students Training on Physics in Technical Academy
G.M. Schevelyova, N.N. Bezryadin, A.F. Brekhov
57 The Problems of Up-Date Education: Reclaiming and Perception of Physics by Natural Science (Nonphysics) Students
L.G. Antoshina, V.I. Nedel'ko, B.A. Strukov
64 The Role of Final Qualifying Papers of Inter Subject Character in the System of Fundamental and Professional Training of Students at Pedagogical Universities
N.I. Zhuravleva, L.N. Zavarykina, M.Ju. Korolev, L.V. Koroleva
68 Teaching Students of the Department of Physics to Use Information Technologies
V.I. Bogoslovsky, G.A. Sukonkin
75 The Concepts of the Physics Course for the Basic School Education
N.S. Purysheva, N.E. Vazheevskaya
84 Course "The Modern Concepts of the Natural Sciences" as a Stage of Training in Area Physical Ecology the Students of Nonphysical Specialties
V..  Gordienko
93 Some Humanitary Aspects of the Modern Physics Achievements and their Reflection in the Course "The Concepts of Modern Natural Sciences"
V.M. Grabov, S.Yu. Trofimova
99 The Learning Methodical Complex and the Peculiarities of Technology in Teaching of Courses "The concepts of Modern Natural Sciences" for Humanity Specialties in High Schools
V.P. Pronin, I.I Sokolova
103 Probabilistic Models in Natural and Humanitary Sciences
Yu.G. Rudoy
112 Scientific and Theological Problems in the Course "Concepts of Modern Science"
V.I. Nedelko, V.N. Prudnikov, A.G. Khundzhua
117 The Laboratory Complex for Study Internal Structure and Dynamics of Environment Systems
Yu.D. Chashechkin, Yu.S. Iljinuh,V.V. Levitskiy, V.V.Mitkin, K.V. Pokazeev, V.E. Prokhorov
136 The Problems of Percolation Theory in the Learning Experiments in the Course of Physics of Condensed Matter
S.D. Khanin, D.A. Potapova 
142 A New Approach to Designing the Educational Laboratory Plants for Physics Practice
V.A. Kvlividze, V.A. Belavin, V.P. Petukhov, V.V. Radchenko
149 Electrophotographic Process as an Object of Learning Physical System Phenomena
V.I. Bogoslovsky, Sukonkin A.G.
154 The Research of Progressive Brownian Motion by the Method of Microfilm. (Lecture Demon- stration. Laboratory Work in a General Physical Practicum)
A.A. Ignatiev, V.A. Kostyakov, L.V. Kuznetsova
160 New Automated Demonstration Experiments on Mechanical Oscillations
M.S. Dounin, M.V. Semenov, A.A. Yakuta
174 Information, abstracts, advertising

 

The Meaning of the Physical Interpretation of Probabilistic Concepts for General Physical Education

A.D. Sukhanov

Moscow State University

It is pointed out that at present in the general course of physics the quasiclassical approach dominates concerning the quantum, statistical and thermodynamical notions. The introduction of the non-classical physics problems is limited by the highly abstract treating of the probabilistic concepts in physics as well as in mathematics itself. It is suggested to give the physical meaning to the main concepts of the probability theory, to revise the methods of its teaching in the course of mathematics. This program will allow to demonstrate the internal unity between the non-classical parts of the general course of physics.

Actual Problems of Teaching General Physics at the Pedagogical Universities

Yu.A. Gorokhovatsky, V.M. Grabov, S.S. Gavrilov, N.P. Divin, V.A. Komarov,
D.E. Temnov, S.Yu. Trofimova, I.I. Hudyakova, O.V. Tchistyakova, T.A. Yakovleva

Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Department of the general and
experimental physics

This article contains the main direction and the brief explanations of the educational methodological work on modernizing the course of general physics and teaching physics made by the faculty of the general and experimental physics Department Herzen University.

New Approach to the Content of the Discipline "The Concepts of Modern Natural Sciences"

O.N. Golubeva, A.D. Sukhanov

Peoples Friendship University of Russia

Moscow State University

The approach is suggested for the construction of generalizing courses in natural sciences, namely "The concepts of modern natural sciences" and "The fundamental natural sciences". This approach is based on the transdisciplinary concepts as the grounds of the holistic description of Nature. The analysis of conceptual physical notions is carried out. Their "genetical" unity is stated, which is due to the realization of the transdisciplinary concepts within classical vs non-classical strategies of knowledge.

 

Physical Models of Electronic Transport Phenomena in Studying of the Grounds of the Solid State Theory

S.D. Khanin, E.L. Antifeeva

Herzen Russian State Pedagogical University, St-Petersburg

The program is presented, which is intended for studying of physical faculties' students of the grounds of solid state theory, especially of the electronic transport phenomena. The education is organized so as to include the system of developing models, which are traditional for learning courses and also some new ones actual for modern studies.

 

Thermodynamics of Free Expansion of Ideal Gas

A.N. Gordeyev

Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow

An analytic comparison of the classic experiments by Toule end Clement-Desorme is performed from the point of view of thermodynamics of free expansion of ideal gas. A peculiar behavior of entropy in different parts of the system in the process has been found.

 

A Holistic Approach to the Teaching of Physics at Higher Military Educational Instituting

A.E. Aizentson

Militaries Automobile Institute, Ryazan'

The article deals with the concept of intensification of studies of physics from the point of view of holistic approach to the teaching and specific characteristics of the studies at a military engineering institute.

 

Adaptation of First Year Students Training on Physics in Technical Academy

G.M. Schevelyova, N.N. Bezryadin, A.F. Brekhov

Voronezh State Academy of Technology

The new forms of training first year students, filling costs of school formation for physics are offered. For their methodical maintenance the manual is prepared. It adapts first year students for high school system of training, and prepares them for successful development of the academic program on physics.

 

The Problems of Up-Date Education: Reclaiming and Perception of Physics by Natural Science (Nonphysics) Students

L.G. Antoshina, V.I. Nedel'ko, B.A. Strukov

M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University

In this paper we give an analysis of the introductory course of physics for the students of nonphysical specialties in the aspect of an adequate reclaiming of knowledge and its perception. We took into account the following factors: the volume and quality of knowledge, abilities of students, conditions of a real teaching, the instrumental base of the educational process. The results reveal that the students whose specialties require the application of physical models, based on the classical physics laws, can be satisfied by the standard introductory courses, and they have no problems with reclaiming and perception. On the other hand for the students, who deal with the complex systems (which are not consistent with the simple physical models) it is necessary to enlarge the base of knowledge and to create some special conditions for the adequate reclaiming of the program materials. The possible version of the solving of this problem is the partial "humanitarization" of the introductory physics course for such students.

 

The Role of Final Qualifying Papers of Inter Subject Character in the System of Fundamental and Professional Training of Students at Pedagogical Universities

N.I. Zhuravleva, L.N. Zavarykina, M.Ju. Korolev, L.V. Koroleva

Moscow State Pedagogical University

The article deals with the role of final qualifying papers of inter subject character in the system of fundamental and professional training of students at pedagogical universities. The subjects of optional courses, which are very important to prepare such papers, should be carefully worked out. The example of correlation between physics and geometry reveals that a consistent elaboration of the subject from the courses to the BSc paper, and further to the diploma and the MSc thesis increases essentially the fundamental and professional skills of undergraduates.

 

Teaching Students of the Department of Physics to Use Information Technologies

V.I. Bogoslovsky, G.A. Sukonkin

Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St-Petersburg

The article reports the methods of teaching the students of the department of physics to use information technologies in their future work.

The article also includes curriculum recommendations.

 

The Concepts of the Physics Course for the Basic School Education

N.S. Purysheva, N.E. Vazheevskaya

Moscow State Pedagogical University

The main didactic ideas and principles of the content and the structure of the course of physics for basic school are discussed. They are the following: integrity, systematic character, consistency, variability, generalization, spiral structure, humanitarization. It is shown how these ideas are realized in the physics course curriculum, which corresponds to the demands of minimum of physics education in the basic school and to the idea of level differentiation. The steps in the forming the concepts about the investigative methods in natural sciences are described.

 

Course "The Modern Concepts of the Natural Sciences" as a Stage of Training in Area Physical Ecology the Students of Nonphysical Specialties

V..  Gordienko

Moscow State University, Physical Department

International Independent University of Ecology & Politology Science

The new conceptual approach to teaching a course "The concepts modern of the nature philosophic", intended for the students of faculties of a humanitarian structure is developed. In a basis of the concept the statement is necessary urgent and very exact under the contents of the academic N.N. Moiseev: "the World is not an environment, and our house, in which we only and can live. To ensure the future, we should know this house and to be able it to equip. The mankind has approached to a threshold, behind which are necessary new morals new of knowledge". By development of the program of a course the attempt was undertaken to depart the standard formalized approach to a course of the nature philosophic as analytical statement of the most recognized today concepts, or history-philosophical analysis of evolution of development of sights on a picture of the World, contribution of the separate scientist, countries etc. in formation of modern representations about a structure of the World.

 

Some Humanitary Aspects of the Modern Physics Achievements and their Reflection in the Course "The Concepts of Modern Natural Sciences"

V.M. Grabov, S.Yu. Trofimova

Herzens Pedagogical State University of Russia, St-Petersburg

The approach to the course "The concepts of modern natural sciences" is suggested, which is based on some new modern physics achievements, e.g. dynamic of unstable states and non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The realization of this approach may be useful not only in education, but also in broad context for every person as human being.

 

The Learning Methodical Complex and the Peculiarities of Technology in Teaching of Courses "The concepts of Modern Natural Sciences" for Humanity Specialties in High Schools

V.P. Pronin, I.I Sokolova

Herzen's Pedagogical State University of Russia, St-Petersburg.

This article includes the consideration of methodical complex for the study program "concepts of natural science". This program is made for the humanity departments of pedagogical universities. This complex includes elements of audio-visual concepts for lectures, lecture experiment, the treatment of practical lessons and independent student's works.

 

Probabilistic Models in Natural and Humanitary Sciences

Yu.G. Rudoy

Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow

One of mostly universal and successful models of the real objects in physics is the statistical-thermodynamical model, where the main role plays micro- and macro-states of objects and also the non-controlled thermal external influence. There is suggested to use analogous approach for more widely set of natural scientific objects on the base of principle of maximum of the information entropy.

 

Scientific and Theological Problems in the Course "Concepts of Modern Science"

V.I. Nedelko, V.N. Prudnikov, A.G. Khundzhua

M.V. Lomonosov Moscow University

This course presents the opportunity given by a conceptional education. It develops a conceptional education approach which is aimed to form an individual general and integral world notion.

It also demonstrates that a systematical world notion is possible only when the integral gnoseology is involved. Such gnoseology includes materialistic and theological views on the subject not as mere set of facts, but in their integrity.

 

The Laboratory Complex for Study Internal Structure and Dynamics of Environment Systems

Yu.D. Chashechkin, Yu.S. Iljinuh,V.V. Levitskiy, V.V.Mitkin,
K.V. Pokazeev, V.E. Prokhorov

M.V. Lomonosov Moscow University

The laboratory complex for study internal structure and dynamics of environment systems was performed on base of complex tanks and tools of Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics of Institute for Problems in Mechanics of RAS for teaching of the student-geophysicists of physical department MSU.

The list of laboratory tasks of this laboratory complex has simple tasks, complicated tasks for performing the diploma and master's degree and expends possibility of lab works of physical department MSU.

The capability of the laboratory complex for study internal structure and dynamics of environment systems could be expanded to a great extent in a parts of measurements tools and kinds of processes studied, including modeling of integrated physical, chemical and biological phenomena.

This works was supported by Federal Special Program "Integration" (grant 2.1-304).

 

The Problems of Percolation Theory in the Learning Experiments in the Course of Physics of Condensed Matter

S.D. Khanin, D.A. Potapova

Herzen Russian State Pedagogical University, St-Petersburg

The strategy of percolation theory problem study, which is the basis of non homogeneous and disordered systems theory, is described. It is shown that the solving of these problems may be realized in the form of learning research tasks, including the natural experiment, physics and computer simulation.

 

A New Approach to Designing the Educational Laboratory Plants for Physics Practice

V.A. Kvlividze, V.A. Belavin, V.P. Petukhov, V.V. Radchenko

M.V. Lomonosov Moscow University

In this paper the conceptual basis is proposed, for designing the educational laboratory installations (Training Simulators) for teaching physics. The Training Simulator is an educational complex, consisting of the a simulator and a personal computer, which has in its memory the experimental results data base, obtained at the modern high-precision scientific experimental installation, and the educational software, which allows the experiment to be conducted at high methodical level. Such a system brings no danger for the student, does not contain any ecologically or physically dangerous parts. Also an existing training installation is described, the Training Simulator "X-Ray Spectrometer".

 

Electrophotographic Process as an Object of Learning Physical System Phenomena

V.I. Bogoslovsky, Sukonkin A.G.

Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St-Petersburg.

There is a description of the special methods how to learn Xerox physical phenomena. The purpose is to develop student's system thinking.

 

The Research of Progressive Brownian Motion by the Method of Microfilm. (Lecture Demonstration. Laboratory Work in a General Physical Practicum)

A.A. Ignatiev, V.A. Kostyakov, L.V. Kuznetsova

Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, Saratov, 410026, Russia

The method of the study of progressive Brownian motion is described by means of microfilm been used for lecture demonstration and laboratory work in general physical practicum.

 

New Automated Demonstration Experiments on Mechanical Oscillations

M.S. Dounin, M. V. Semenov, A. A. Yakuta

M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University

Some new automated quantitative demonstration experiments treating of mechanical oscillations are described. In these experiments an angular displacement sensor based on optical mouse is used. A special attention to the nonlinear oscillations studies is given.